Something as simple as an electric field could soon make war rockets or drinking glasses easier to manufacture and more resistant to breaking.
Items such as drinking mugs, rocket heads, thermal barrier coatings for engine blades, auto parts, electronic and optical components are usually made with ceramics.
Ceramics are mechanically sound but tend to break suddenly when slightly stressed.
Scientists at Purdue University have developed a new process that helps to overcome the fragile nature of ceramics and make it more plastic and durable. The Purdue team calls the process "flash sintering," which adds an electric field to the conventional sintering method used to form bulk ceramic components.
"We were able to show that even at room temperature, the ceramics baked with the electric field surprisingly deformed plastic before breaking when compressed at high stress," says Haiyang Wang, professor of engineering education at Basdu S. Turner Basil S. Turner.
A study published in Science Advances shows that applying an electric field to the formation of ceramics makes the material almost as easily altered as the metal at room temperature. The Purdue team specifically applied their technique to titanium dioxide, a widely used white pigment.
"Nanotubes have been introduced into various metallic materials to improve strength and ductility. However, there are few previous studies that show that nanotubes and defect placement can significantly improve the ductility of ceramics," says Jin Li, a PhD student and researcher by the research team.
Significantly increased room temperature plasticity in titanium dioxide is attributed to unusually high density defects such as stacking faults, twins, and dislocations formed by the rapid sintering process.
"The presence of these defects eliminates the need for defects in nuclear ceramics, which usually requires a greater nuclear voltage greater than the breaking strength of the ceramics," Wang says.
Li, the first author of the Purdue article, said: "Our results are important because they open the door to using many different ceramics in new ways that can provide more flexibility and durability for keeping heavy loads and high loads temperatures without catastrophic brittle damage. "
Improved plasticity of ceramics means more mechanical durability during operation at relatively low temperatures. The sample could also withstand almost as much compression stress as some metals before cracks begin to appear.
" These plastic ceramics find many technologically important applications, "says Singh Zhang, professor of engineering and joint research researcher." It can be used for defense operations, car manufacturing Components of nuclear reactors and devices for sustainable energy. "
The study shows that ceramics can be deformed as metals if they are sintered under an electric field
Jin Li et al., Nanoscale Arrangement of Plastic Assisted with Defective Room Temperature in Synchronized TiO2, Science Advances (201
New Technique for Improving the Plasticity of Ceramic Materials for Rockets, Engines (2019, September 24)
retrieved September 24, 2019
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