Home https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Science https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ A tiny black hole surprises astronomers: it shouldn't exist.

A tiny black hole surprises astronomers: it shouldn't exist.




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Generally speaking, black holes are the corpse of a dead star. & Nbsp; But not all stars become black holes at the end of your life ̵

1; for example, our known Sun is small enough to escape this fate. & nbsp; Until recently, black holes were thought to be formed only by super stars, and the smallest black hole known to scientists is about five times the mass of the Sun. & nbsp; However, recent scientific paper announced the discovery of a black hole, much more smaller than that. & nbsp; This will require astronomers to rethink their patterns of black hole formation because black holes do not have to be so small.

So what determines the mass of a black h ole? & nbsp; This is the size of the star from which it formed. & nbsp; Black holes come from big stars and, like some of their Hollywood relatives, big stars live fast and die young. & nbsp; A large mass burns from their fuel very quickly, first converting the hydrogen into helium, and then, when the hydrogen leaks, heats and burns the helium. & nbsp; During the helium combustion phase, the core of the star swells and becomes red giant with a radius large enough to cover the orbit of Earth.

Eventually helium also leaks out and even heavier elements are used to feed the star's fusion with oxygen and then silicon until the star finally converts its material into iron. causing a supernova. & nbsp; The outer layers of the star explode into space, leaving a residue.

If the mass of the parent star is over twenty times the mass of the sun, it will leave a nucleus of perhaps five solar masses. & nbsp; If the nucleus is so large or larger, gravity is so strong that matter cannot resist the force and it breaks down and forms a black hole.

For stars with an initial mass of four to eight times the mass of the Sun, the process is similar, but the rest of the nucleus is much smaller – p is twice that of the Sun. Under these conditions, the gravity driving the nucleus is smaller and not strong enough to make a black hole. & nbsp; What remains is called a neutron star, which is when matter from the core is packed so tightly that protons and electrons combine to make neutrons and neutrons have no space between them and neighboring neutrons.

For smaller stars like our sun, the process is much less dramatic and the result is a white dwarf, which is essentially a small and burnt star, an eel that will shine eons.

The gap between the heaviest neutron stars and the smallest black holes is interesting to astronomers. & nbsp; Prior to this discovery, the mass of the heaviest known neutron stars was about twice the mass of the Sun. And the smallest measured black hole has a mass about five or six times the size of the Sun. & nbsp; The mass area 2 – 5 times the mass of the sun is called the mass of the abyss.

Dr. Todd Thompson, a professor of astronomy at Ohio State University and a leading author of a recent study, decided to look for burnt-out masses of masses in the range of the masses. & Nbsp; He and other scientists scratched by data taken with the help of the Apache Galactic Point Observatory Experiment, or APOGEE, which studies the spectra of about 100,000 stars in the Milky Way. change slightly depending on the star's motion. & nbsp; If it moves towards a telescope, it will look slightly blue, and if it moves away from the telescope it will look slightly redder.

If two stars are close to each other, they will orbit at a central point. & Nbsp; And in their orbit, they will move to the Earth and beyond, which will result in slight color changes. & Nbsp; two stars is a black hole. What astronomers will see is a single star with a rhythmic shift in color. & nbsp;

After screening their data the team found a red giant star that was locked in orbit with an invisible satellite. & nbsp; The red giant has a mass between 2.2 – 4.2 times that of the sun, and the invisible satellite has a mass in the range 2.6 – 6.1 times that of the sun, with the most likely mass of 3.3 solar masses.

The most likely mass for this invisible object is right in the middle of the mass abyss, although measurement uncertainty almost covers the range of the heaviest neutron star and the lightest black hole. & Nbsp;

Naturally, astronomers are very interested in this mysterious heavy object and more. If more accurate measurements result in a mass close to 3.3 solar masses, astronomers will need to rethink their black hole patterns. & nbsp; And if subsequent measurements establish that the mass of the invisible object is at the ends of the reported range in that measurement, it will still be an example of a very heavy neutron star or a very light black hole, but still … far … more likely is to be a small black hole. & nbsp; Regardless of the result of the subsequent measurements, this finding will be of interest to astronomers.

While scientists know a great deal about the universe and the life and death of stars, there are always surprises. & nbsp; This is, after all, why we do research. & nbsp; More research like this will teach us more about the life cycle of massive stars. & nbsp;

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Generally speaking, black holes are the corpse of a dead star, but not all stars become black holes at the end of their lives – for example, the known Sun is small enough for Until recently, black holes were thought to be formed only by supermassive stars, and the smallest The black hole known to scientists is about five times the mass of the Sun. However, a science book recently announced the discovery of a black hole much smaller than this, which will require astronomers to rethink their patterns of black hole formation, because the black holes should not be so small.

So what determines the mass of a black hole? This is the size of the star from which it formed. Black holes come from big stars and, like some of their Hollywood relatives, big stars live fast and die young. High mass burns through its fuel very quickly, first converting the hydrogen into helium, and then, when the hydrogen leaks, it heats and burns the helium. During the helium combustion phase, the nucleus of the star swells and it becomes a red giant with a radius large enough to cover the orbit of Earth.

Eventually helium also leaks out and even heavier elements are used to feed the star's nuclear fusion with oxygen, then silicon, until the star finally converts its material into iron. And when iron appears, the star runs out of fuel and collapses within itself, heating up as it falls apart, causing a supernova. The outer layers of the star explode into space, leaving a residue.

If the mass of the parent star is over twenty times the mass of the sun, it will leave a nucleus of perhaps five solar masses. If the nucleus is so large or larger, gravity is so strong that matter cannot resist the force and it breaks down and forms a black hole

For stars with an initial mass of four to eight times the mass of The sun, the process is similar, but the rest of the nucleus is much smaller – maybe twice the size of the sun. Under these conditions, the gravity driving the nucleus is smaller and not strong enough to make a black hole. All that remains is what is called a neutron star, which is when the matter of the nucleus is folded so tightly that protons and electrons combine to make neutrons, and neutrons have no space between them and neighboring neutrons.

For smaller stars, similar to our sun, the process is much less dramatic, and the result is a white dwarf, which is essentially a small and burnt star, an eel that will shine for eons.

This is the gap between the heaviest neutron stars and the smallest black holes, which is interesting to astronomers. Prior to this discovery, the mass of the heaviest known neutron stars was about twice the mass of the Sun. And the smallest measured black hole has a mass about five or six times the size of the Sun. The mass section of 2 – 5 times the mass of the Sun is called the mass gap.

Dr. Todd Thompson, a professor of astronomy at Ohio State University and lead author of a recent study, decided to look for burnt out masses of masses in the range of the mass gap. He and other scientists met through data from the Galactic Evolution Experiment, the Apache Point Observatory, or APOGEE, which studies the spectra of about 100,000 stars along the Milky Way.

The principle of physics, called the Doppler effect, says that the color of a star (indeed of any object) will change slightly depending on the motion of the star. If it moves to a telescope, it will look a little blue, and if it moves away from the telescope it will look a little red.

If two stars are close together, they will orbit at a central point. And in their orbit, they will alternatively move to and from Earth, causing slight color changes. If one of the two stars is a black hole, what astronomers will see is a single star with a rhythmically shifting color.

After sifting through their data, the team found a red giant star that was trapped in orbit with an invisible satellite. The red giant had a mass between 2.2 and 4.2 times the mass of the sun, and the invisible satellite had a mass in the range 2.6 – 6.1 times that of the sun, with the most likely mass from 3.3 solar masses.

The most likely mass for this invisible object is right in the middle of the mass abyss, although measurement uncertainty almost covers the range of the heaviest neutron star and the lightest black hole.

Astronomers are naturally very interested in this mysterious heavy object. If more accurate measurements result in a mass close to 3.3 solar masses, astronomers will need to rethink their patterns of black hole formation. And if subsequent measurements establish that the mass of the invisible object is at the ends of the range taken in that measurement, it will still be an example of a very heavy neutron star or a very light black hole, but it is … far … more it will probably be a small black hole. Regardless of the result of the tracking of the measurements, this finding will be of interest to astronomers.

While scientists know a great deal about the universe and the life and death of stars, there are always surprises. This is, after all, why we do research. More research like this will teach us more about the life cycle of massive stars.


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