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Home https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Science https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ A unique Iberian male DNA was nearly destroyed by immigrant farmers 4500 years ago [New Study]

A unique Iberian male DNA was nearly destroyed by immigrant farmers 4500 years ago [New Study]



An international team of researchers analyzed ancient DNA from nearly 300 individuals from the Iberian Peninsula, spanning more than 12,000 years, in two studies published today in Current Biology and Science . The first study looked at collecting hunters and early farmers living in Iberia 13,000 and 6,000 years ago. The second looks at individuals in the region during all time periods over the past 8000 years. Together, the two reports greatly increase our knowledge of the history of the population of this unique region.

The Iberian Peninsula has long been considered a state of emergency in the history of the European population because of its unique climate and location on the westernmost edge of the continent. During the last Ice Age, Iberia remained relatively warm, allowing plants and animals ̵

1; and perhaps people – who were forced to withdraw from much of the rest of Europe to continue living there. Similarly, over the past 8000 years, Iberia's geographic location, intersectional terrain, the location of the Mediterranean coast and its proximity to North Africa make it unique compared to other parts of Europe in its interactions with other regions. Two new studies, published simultaneously in Current Biology and Science analyze a total of nearly 300 individuals who lived about 13,000 to 400 years ago to give unprecedented clarity about the unique history of the population of the Iberian peninsula.

  A man and a woman buried side by side in the Bronze Age of Castilejo de Bone in Spain have different genetic ancestors. (Lewis Benitez de Lugo Enrique and Jose Luis Fuentes Sanchez / Opida)

A man and woman buried side by side in the Bronze Age in Castilejo de Bone in Spain have different genetic ancestors. Luigi Benitez de Lugo Enrique and Jose Luis Fuentes Sanchez / Opida )

Iberian hunter-gatherers show two ancient paleolithic lines

About the article in Current Biology of the Max Planck Institute of Science for Human History, researchers analyzed 11 harvester-hunters and Neolithic individuals from Iberia. The oldest newly discovered individuals are about 12,000 years old and have been recovered from Balma Gylanya in Spain.

  Excavation works in the region of Balma Gylanya. (CEPAP-UAB)

Excavation works in the area of ​​Balma Guilanyà. Earlier evidence shows that, since the end of the last Ice Age, western and central Europe dominated hunter-gatherers with ancestors associated with an approximately 14,000-year-old person from Viliberona, Italy. It is believed that Italy was a potential refuge for people during the last Ice Age, such as Iberia. The genealogy associated with Villabruna has largely replaced its earlier ancestors in Western and Central Europe, linked to individuals from 19,000-15,000 years of age, associated with what is known as the Magdalen Cultural Complex. Interestingly, the findings of this study show that both genera were present in Iberian individuals dating back 19,000 years ago. "We can confirm the survival of an extra Paleolithic family that dates back to the late Ice Age of Iberia," said Wolfgang Haak of the Institute for the Study of Human History, Max Plank, senior author of the study. "This confirms the role of the Iberian peninsula as a refuge during the last ice peak, not only for flora and fauna, but also for the human population." Prehistoric hunter-gatherers. (CC0) "class =" media-image "height =" 700 "style =" width: 466px; height: 700px; "width =" 466 "typeof =" foaf: Image "src =" https://www.ancient-origins.net/sites/default/files/Prehistoric-hunter-gatherers.jpg "/> [19659014(19659005) ) This suggests that far from the substitution of Vlyabruna-related individuals since the last Ice Age, the collecting hunters in Iberia have actually originated from Magdalen and The discovery suggests an early link between two potential refuges, resulting in genetic ancestry that has survived in later Iberian harvesters

"Iberian Gunmen a combination of two older types of genetic ancestors is one that dates back to the last ice age and was once increased in individuals attributed to Magdalen culture and another that occurs everywhere in Western and Central Europe and has replaced the Magdalen line during the early Holocene everywhere except the Iberian Peninsula, Vanessa Vialla-Muco of the Institute for Science for Human History explains Max Planck, the first author of the study.

Researchers hope that continuing efforts to decipher the genetic structure of groups of later hunter-gatherers in Europe will help an even better understanding of Europe's past and, in particular, the assimilation of a Neolithic way of life,

Ancient DNA from individuals spanning the last 8000 years helps to elucidate the history and prehistory of the Iberian peninsula

The paper published in Science is focus on small later periods of time and traces the history of Iberia population over the past 8000 years by analyzing ancient DNA from a huge number of individuals. The study, led by the Harvard Medical School and the Broad Institute, and including Haak and Wilabba-Muco, analyzed 271 ancient Iberians from Mesolithic, Neolithic, Copper Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Historical Periods. The large number of people allowed the team to draw more detailed conclusions for each time period than was possible before.

  These two skeletons in La Braña in northwestern Spain belong to dark-haired and blue eyes, who lived 8,000 years ago and were most closely associated with collecting hunters in Central Europe. These two skeletons in La Brañna in northwest Spain belonged to dark-haired and blue-eyed siblings who lived 8,000 years ago and were most closely associated with hunters-gatherers in Central Europe. (19659005) Julio Manuel Vida Encinas </em><em>) </em> </p>
<p>  The researchers found that during the transition to the sedentary agricultural life, the hunter-gatherers in Iberia contributed thinly to the genetics of newly arriving farmers in the Middle East. "We can see that there must have been a local mix, as Iberian farmers also bear this double signature of the hunters and hunters' ancestors who are unique to Iberia," explains Villabla-Muco. Between about 2500-2000 BC, Researchers observed the replacement of 40% of the Iberian clans and almost 100% of Y-chromosomes with people from the Pontus steppe, a region in today's Ukraine and Russia. Interestingly, the findings show that during the Iron Age "steppe ancestors" have spread not only in the Indo-European speaking regions of Iberia, but also in non-European-speakers such as the Basque people. Researchers' analysis suggests that today's Basques most closely resemble a typical Iberian population of the Iron Age, including the influx of steppe ancestors, but that they were not affected by subsequent genetic contributions affecting the rest of Iberia. This suggests that Basque speakers are equally genetically affected by other groups of steppe populations but keep their tongue in any case. It was only after that time that they became relatively genetically isolated from the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. </p>
<p align=  Olentzero in Beasain. Gipuzkoa, Basque Country. (Edition / CC BY SA 3.0)

Olentzero in Beasain. Gipuzkoa, Basque Country.

Furthermore, the researchers looked at historical periods, including the times when Greek and later Roman settlements existed in Iberia. Researchers have found that at least during the Roman period the origin of the peninsula has been transformed from the gene pool of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean. They found that the Greek and Roman settlements were very multiethnic, with individuals from the Central and Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa, as well as from the locals, and that these interactions had a lasting demographic and cultural impact. "Beyond the specific ideas of Iberia, this study serves as a model for how a highly resonant ancient DNA transect can be used, which continues in historical periods to give a detailed description of the formation of today's populations," explains Haak, We hope that future use of such strategies will provide equally valuable insights into other regions of the world. "

A big picture: Farmers from the Pontic Steppe drastically transformed Iberian DNA 4500 years ago. Source: Outside the Woods

The article originally titled " A Unique Variety of the Genetic History of the Iberian Peninsula Discovered through Double Studies" Science Daily. Source: Institute of Science for Human History Max Planck. "Unique variety of genetic history of the Iberian peninsula revealed through double studies." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, March 14, 2019. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190314151551.htm

References

Pau Kastel, Alice Cheng, Antonio Quevas-Navarro, David B. Everman, Alex G. Papageorge, Dhirendra K. Simanshu, Alexandra Tankka, Jacqueline Galeas, Anatoly Urisman, Frank McCormick. RIT1 oncoproteins avoided LZTR1-mediated proteolysis . Science 2019; 363 (6432): 1226 DOI: 10.1126 / science.aav1444

Vanessa Vialla-Muco, Marike S. van de Loosdrecht, Cosimo Post, Rafael Mora, Jorge Martinez-Moreno, Manuel Roho-Guerra, Domingo S. Salazar-Garcia , José I. Royo-Guillene, Michael Kunst, Elen Rujie, Isabelle Krevequeur, Ector Arkusha-Magallon, Christina Teedor-Rodriguez, Inigo Garcia-Martinez de Lagran, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Kurt W. Alt, Chongong Jeong, Pilar Utrilla, Johan Krause, Wolfgang Haak. Survival of the late Pleistocene genealogy of a hunter-gatherer on the Iberian peninsula . Current Biology 2019; DOI: 10.1016 / j.cub.2019.02.006


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