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An unexpected new measurement of the universe implies that we need to update our physics



Astronomers first used supermassive black holes just after the Big Bang to measure the speed of expanding the universe. Now, we have a greater mystery in our hands than the answer to this effort.

It turns out that the universe is growing faster than expected. This may mean that the dark energy that is believed to accelerate this expansion, sometimes interpreted as the cosmological constant described by Albert Einstein, is, after all, not as cosmologically constant.

The speed of expansion of the universe is called the Hubble constant, and it was incredibly difficult to establish. Each test appears to have a different result; Recently, Planck satellite data, which measured the cosmic microwave background, set it at 67.4 kilometers per second for a mega-parse with less than 1

percent uncertainty. Other methods typically include the use of "standard candles", objects of known luminance, such as cephaetic variable stars or type Ia supernovae, of which the distance can be calculated based on their absolute magnitude. second of megapixels. So you can understand why astronomers keep poking this strange cosmic bear.

But a few years ago, astronomers realized the distance to another object could also be accurately calculated. Enter quasars together with their black holes.

Quasars are among the brightest objects in the universe. Each is a galaxy that runs around a supermassive black hole that actively feeds material. Its light and radios are caused by material around the black hole, called accretion disk, which emits intense light and heat from friction when it rotates like water running around the sewer. and, as discovered by astronomers Guido Risaliti of Università di Firenze, Italy, and Elisabeta Lusso of Durham University, UK, the ratio of these two wavelengths produced by quasar varies depending on ultraviolet light. as calculated from this ratio, quasar can be used just like any other standard candle.

And that means we can measure even further back in the history of the universe.

"The use of quasars as standard candles has great potential because we can observe them far beyond ours than type Ia supernovae and use them to explore much earlier epochs in the history of the cosmos "

Researchers compiled a data record of 1598 quasars from just 1.1 billion to 2.3 billion years after the Big Bang, and used their distances to calculate the speed of expansion of the early Universe

They also checked their results against the results of the supernovae of the type Ia that covered the last 9 billion years, and found similar results when overlapping, but in the early universe, where only quasars gave measurements, there was a mismatch between what they were watching and what was predicted on the basis of the standard cosmological model. "We watched the quasars back just one billion years after the Big Bang. and finds that the speed of expanding the universe to our day is faster than expected, "Risaliti said.

" This may mean that dark energy is getting stronger as space grows. "

I know what dark energy is – we can not see it or find it – it's just the name we give to the unknown repulsive force that seems to speed up the expansion of the universe over time. this rate of expansion of astrophysicists has calculated that dark energy accounts for about 70% of the universe – so the expansion rate will also give us a more accurate calculation of the volume of dark energy.)

If the density of dark energy increases over time, scientists believe that this would mean, is not Einstein's cosmological constant, but that would explain the strange figures – and perhaps even the mismatch between Hubble Constant's previous results

So far, there is still much work to be done to test this result and "This model is quite interesting because it can solve two puzzles at once, but the jury definitely has not come out and we will have to look at more models in detail before we can solve this cosmic puzzle , "Ralliti said.

"Some scientists suggest that new physics may be needed to explain this mismatch, including the possibility of dark energy growing."

The team's research was published in the journal. Astronomy and can be read entirely from the arprint resource


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