HISTORICAL WRITING FOR CBS NEWS & USED DOCUMENT
Two astronauts marched outside the International Space Station on Friday for the first of four space paths to repair a $ 2 billion space detector and merge while working to prepare the invasive surgery device in new coolant pumps and expand device
"We will do what might be considered open-heart surgery in this incredible experiment," said Italian astronaut Luca Parmitano, the current space commander ntsiya.
7.5 tonnes In this case, the patient is an Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, or AMS, the most expensive scientific instrument aboard a space station and one that is not designed to be serviced in orbit. As such, "operation" is considered to be one of the most difficult, as the work to repair and upgrade the Hubble Space Telescope
is "Defined to the top of the list, if not to the top," said Tara Yohim  Floating in the Station's Quest Air Base, Parmitano and NASA astronaut Drew Morgan switched their spacesuits to battery power at 6:39 a.m. EST to officially launch the Ninth Space Route this year.  The last time Parmitano wandered into space in July 2013, his suit did not function, flooding his helmet with water and forcing him to return to the emergency lounge. NASA has developed procedures to prevent relapse, and since then no such problems have occurred.
The main purpose of the space path on Friday was to prepare AMS for its planned operation by identifying tools and equipment before removing the debris, giving them access to the thermal control system of the device.
After carefully throwing a debris shield overboard, the space tracks attached two handrails to help them move around the device and, by reaching AMS, cut off half a dozen zippers and cut a cord to fold back insulating blankets.
Work went much faster than expected and astronauts were able to work through several objects initially planned for their second space path next Friday. Just then, the actual repair work will begin. The third and fourth space lanes will be formally scheduled after managers evaluate the results of the first two launches.
Parmitano and Morgan returned to the air unit, closed the hatch and began repression at 1:18 a.m. to complete the six-hour 39-minute space flight, 222nd since the station was built in 1998, the ninth so far. this year, the third for Parmitano and the fourth for Morgan.
"I must tell you. , you made the ground crew terribly happy and proud of you guys today, just great, great job, "Canadian astronaut Jeremy Hansen broadcasts from Mission Control. "We are very, very pleased with where we stand to move forward with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer returned and operational. So congratulations to all of you. "
Unlike the Hubble Space Telescope, designed from scratch to be serviced by astronauts traveling in space, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer was never designed to operate in space. As such, it was not equipped with the wide variety of fasteners, cables, railings and interior distances required of astronauts operating in bulky pressure suits.
Ultimately, it took engineers and astronauts four years to make a plan. , developing some two dozen personalized testing tools and procedures during multiple underwater drills. Parmitano and Morgan completed seven training sessions before continuing to the train station in July.
"We had to go out and figure out how to create a working site, we had to build new railings to install on the existing hardware. we had to deal with existing sharp edges and in many cases create new sharp edges using tools that have sharp edges on them, "said Johim.
" We have done as much as we can to minimize this risk for crew members, and then, of course, to (repairing) the payload itself, "she said." But they are certainly very challenging and technically difficult EVAs.
Launched in 2011 on the next space shuttle mission – " Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer "is one of the most expensive scientific startup tools available
is built around a powerful electromagnet that bends the trajectories of electrically charged cosmic ray particles created by explosions of supernova and other extreme-energy events, allowing trajectory researchers to characterize their velocities and energies. 19659004] The purpose is to find out what happened to the antimatter, thought to have been created at the great birth of the cosmos, to learn more about the unseen dark matter that penetrates the cosmos and eventually gain an idea of the dark energy energy, the mysterious repulsive force that speeds up the expansion of the universe.
Designed to operate in just three years, AMS proved to be longer than expected, detecting more than 145 billion cosmic rays in eight and a half years of operation. But in recent months, the appliance has been boiled by the phasing-out of four small pumps needed to circulate carbon dioxide coolant through its sensitive detectors.
In order to repair AMS, Parmitano and Morgan will have to cut eight small coolant lines during their second space flow and interweave or "swap" new lines leading to a custom pump replacement module being launched. at the station earlier this month. The pump module will be installed during the third space path.
"We will cut the tubes and then merge them with other tubes (started) from Earth and install a brand new pump to help work in the refrigerator while retaining the magnet. cold for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer to work, "Parmitano said. "This is really the first attempt to perform any of these actions."