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Astronomers see evidence of supermassive black holes that are formed directly in the early universe



The super mass black holes (SMBH) are hard to explain. It is believed that these giant features are at the center of every great galaxy (our Milky Way has one), but their presence sometimes lends itself to an easy explanation. As far as we know, black holes are formed when giant stars collapse. But this explanation does not fit all the evidence

The theory of star collapse does a good job of explaining most of the black holes. In this theory, a star at least five times more massive than our Sun starts to end up with fuel at the end of its life. Since the external pressure of one star's fusion supports it against internal gravity from its own mass, something must be given when the fuel is over. A black hole remains. Astrophysicists believe that SMBHs start this way and grow in their huge size, essentially "feeding" other things. They swell in size and sit at the center of gravity as a spider fattened in the middle of its net.

The problem with this explanation is that it takes a long time for it to happen. The impression shows the surroundings of a supermassive black hole, typical of the one that is in the heart of many galaxies. The black hole itself is surrounded by a brilliant accretion disk of very hot, fallen material and then dusty dung. Frequently, there are high-speed jets of material thrown out of the black hole poles that can extend the vast distances in space. Image credit: ESO / L. Calçada ̵

1; ESO website, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39626793 "srcset =" wp-image-142710 " "https://www.universetoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/1152px-Artist_impression_of_a_supermassive_black_hole_at_the_centre_of_a_galaxy-1024×640.jpg 1024w, https://www.universetoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/ 1152px-Artist_impression_of_a_supermassive_black_hole_at_the_centre_of_a_galaxy-250×156.jpg 250w, https://www.universetoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/1152px-Artist_impression_of_a_supermassive_black_hole_at_the_centre_of_a_galaxy-580×363.jpg 580w, https://www.universetoday.com/wp- content / uploads / 2019/06 / 1152px-Artist_impression_of_a_supermassive_black_hole_at_the_centre_of_a_galaxy-768×480.jpg 768w, https://www.universetoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/1152px-Artist_impression_of_a_supermassive_black_hole_at_the_centre_of_a_galaxy.jpg 1152w "sizes =" (max- width: 767px) 89vw, (m ax-width: 1000px) 54vw, (max-width: 1071px) 543px, 580px "/>
t many galaxies. The black hole itself is surrounded by a brilliant accretion disk of very hot, fallen material and then dusty dung. Frequently, there are high-speed jets of material thrown out of the black hole poles that can extend the vast distances in space. Image Credit: From ESO / L. From here in the universe, scientists have watched the ancient SMBHs, but not there, on the ESO website, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php? In March of this year, a group of astronomers announced the opening of 83 SMBHs, which are so ancient that they have challenged our understanding. In 2017, astronomers discovered a black hole of 800 million solar mass, which was completely shaped only 690 million years after the Big Bang. They arose in the early days of the universe before they had time to grow into their super-massive forms. Many of these SMBHs are billions of times more massive than the Sun. They are so tall red that they must have been formed in the first 800 million years since the Big Bang. But this is not enough time for the stellar collapse to explain. The question astrophysicists face is how these black holes have become so big in so little time? They have a new theory called "direct collapse" that explains these incredibly ancient SMBHs. Their report is titled "The Mass Function of Supermassive Black Holes in the Direct Collapsed Scenario" and is published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. The authors are Shantanu Basu and Arpan Das. Basu is a recognized expert in the early stages of star formation and protoplanet disk development. He is Professor of Astronomy at West University. Das is also from Physics and Astronomy Department of the Western

  SMBH in the image of Subaru Telescope is 13.05 billion light-years from Earth. These ancient SMBHs have challenged our understanding of how black holes are formed. Image Credit: Japan's National Astronomical Observatory (NAOJ).
SMBH in the image of Subaru Telescope is 13.05 billion light-years from the Earth. These ancient SMBHs have challenged our understanding of how black holes are formed. Image Credit: Japan's National Astronomical Observatory (NAOJ).

Their theory of direct collapse says ancient super-massive black holes are formed extremely quickly in very short periods of time. Then suddenly they stopped growing. They developed a new mathematical model to explain these quickly formed black holes. They say the Edgunton boundary, which is a balance between the star's external radiation power and the internal gravitational force, plays a role.

In these black holes with a direct collapse, Eddington Limit regulates mass growth, and the researchers claim that these ancient black holes can even cross that border with a small amount of what they call the Over-Eddington. Then, due to radiation produced by other stars and black holes, their production stopped. "The super massive black holes had only a short period of time when they could grow fast and then at some point due to the whole radiation in the universe created by other black holes and stars, their production has stopped," Basu explains in a statement "This is indirect proof of observation that the black holes originate from direct collapses, not from starvation," said Basu, a tough question in astronomy for some time. believes these new outcomes can be used in future observations to conclude the history of the formation of the extremely massive black holes that exist in very early times in our universe

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