Tips on limiting saturated fat intake have been official government policies in many countries, including the United Kingdom, for decades.
But many people ignore this advice, preferring to believe that saturated fat – which is the largest amount in foods such as meat products, whole-milk dairy products, butter, melted butter, cakes and biscuits, and coconut and palm oil – it is not bad for us, even at high intake.
Almost certainly you will have more saturated fat than the officially recommended amount if you make one of the most popular low carb regimes such as keto or palae diet or if you follow the tendency to spread butter or fat in your coffee every morning. Eat more than 1
Mainstream nutrition science says too much saturated fat increases cholesterol levels in the blood, which can lead to arteries turning into "blood" and increased chance of heart attack or stroke. But some scientists say that saturated fat is not the problem with heart disease, but instead chronic inflammation.
Supporters of low-fat, high-fat carbohydrate (LCHF) also – controversially – suggest that the current "low fat, high carbohydrate" dietary guidelines are wrong and that obesity and diabetes would be better overcome by eating fat, including saturated fats, along with a reduction in carbohydrates and avoiding a snack – a position that is being challenged by experts from the British Dietetic Association and others who think less guidance
As a population, health organizations in most countries recommend reducing fat, especially saturated fats. For example, British nutrition guidelines recommend that up to 35% of our dietary energy (calories) come from fat and about 50% of carbohydrates. (It is worth noting that this can actually be considered a moderate fat, a moderate carbohydrate diet rather than a low fat, high carbohydrate diet). The UK recommends not to contain more than 11% of our calories for food and drink, whereas the United States and the World Health Organization recommend less than 10%. This would be approximately 20 grams per day for women (equivalent to 2.5 tablespoons butter or four supermarkets) and 30 grams per day for men (a quarter-hour cheeseburger plus four tablespoons of double cream).
The American Heart Association goes farther, suggesting a figure of 5-6%. Since titles are often contradictory and experts seem to disagree, it is no wonder that people do not know what to believe about saturated fats. What is reality?
Lynne Garton, a registered dietitian and nutrition counselor at the Heart UK Charity Cholesterol Association, says the latest trend towards saturated fat compared to other species is very worrying: we already eat too much. British adults exceed the recommendations by consuming 12.5% of the calories of saturated fat, although their total fat intake is approximately the target. Americans average 11% of their saturated fat calories and 12% of Australians. "Several factors contribute to raising blood cholesterol, but a diet high in saturated fat is definitely one of them, and this is confirmed in studies that have been ongoing since the 1950s," Garton said. despite some claims to the contrary, the wealth of scientific evidence indicates that total LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol – often called "bad" cholesterol – has been shown to contribute to heart disease. "
Garton adds that some people may benefit from less saturated fat than the standard recommendation – especially those who have other risk factors for heart disease
Fat Replacement  That said, saturated fats are not as obvious as this is because it is just one of several dietary factors that affect the risk of heart disease, all of which are interrelated
Not to mention that if take a little saturated fat from yo You probably have replaced these calories with something "Some studies questioned the direct link between saturated fats and heart disease, but they generally did not take into account what replaces saturated fat when it is reduced in the diet – This is crucial," says Garton
A number of international organizations use scientific evidence to recommend a reduction in saturated fat and substitution with unsaturated fats. In one study, when 5% of saturated fat calories were replaced by the same number of calories of polyunsaturated fats (such as salmon, sunflower oil, nuts and seeds) or monounsaturated fats (such as olive and rape oils), the risk of death and the reason is reduced by 19% and 11% respectively. Both types of "good" fat substitution reduce heart attacks. Substitution of saturated fats with whole grains such as brown rice and whole grain bread
However, when sugar and refined starch (as white flour) replace saturated fats, the risk of heart attack actually increased. "Most national dietary guidelines, including the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States, already recognize that the exchange of some of the saturated fat in our diet for unsaturated fats is healthy for the heart," says study co-author Peter Clifton, a nutritionist at the University
"But you can add that it's probably good to replace some fat-rich foods with whole grains, but it's definitely not good to replace them with sugar or refined carbohydrates. This may actually be worse than not reducing saturated fat at all.
Unfortunately, when the food industry began to produce low-fat foods such as ready meals, puddings and yogurts, the percentage of sugar often increased.
Also, some types of saturated fatty acids that make up saturated fats are less harmful than others. For example, stearic acid, which accounts for approximately half of the saturated fat in dark chocolate, does not raise cholesterol in the blood (the other saturated fatty acid – palmitic acid – does, however, best not to eat the whole bar). Other studies have shown that "food" In cheese and yogurt, for example, calcium (a mineral that can maintain normal blood pressure) may cause these foods to have less impact on LDL cholesterol elevation than , say, bacon. that the consumption of dairy products (including whole milk products) does not appear to be related to coronary heart disease. (However, it is important to take research as skeptical, though, as many nutrition studies show that they show a relationship rather than a causal relationship – in other words, people who eat more dairy products may simply have dairy products tend to look at milk and yogurt but much less on butter or cream
Of course, luck and good genes can also continue. "We all know someone, whose grandmother lived up to 103 meals with lots of butter, cream and drops, "But at population level, all the evidence suggests that the diet that is healthiest is with lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and unsaturated fat-rich sources like nuts and oily fish." focus on individual nutrients, we need to look at the overall diet and incorporate abundant of these healthy heart foods, "she adds.
In short, this is more advice to eat a healthy Mediterranean diet – and get keep from coffee, burgers and bacon.  –  Join a million fans of the future by liking Facebook or follow us on Twitter or Instagram . ]
If you like this story, sign up for the weekly newsletter for bbc.com called "If you're just reading 6 things this week." Selected selection of stories from BBC Future, Culture, Capital and Travel delivered to your mailbox every Friday .