The home DNA test has gone from niche pursuit to an easy way to outline your family tree. With a simple cheek swab or saliva sample, a DNA testing kit can be used to examine ancestry or family background and determine paternity. And in the last few years, they've become quite affordable, with a wide variety of DNA testing companies selling DNA test kits – from trailblazers like Ancestry and 23andMe to updates, including LivingDNA.
You can learn a lot from DNA testing. In addition to deepening your understanding of ancestry, some services will introduce you to living relatives around the world, through a common ancestor, or shed light on your predisposition to specific health problems and illnesses. Others will even give you an idea of the dog's health and breed. Here is our overview of the nine best DNA test kits and services ̵
We will update this story in the coming weeks as we continue our in-depth testing of these services. In the meantime, the most popular DNA testing services identified by Google's keyword search ranking are included here.
Looking for more in-depth information on DNA testing services as a whole? Directly to our explanator.
- Price: $ 99 or $ 199 with Health Information (plus $ 9.95 shipping)
- Tests: Autosomal (See What Autosomal Testing Means), Y-DNA, mtDNA, Health
- Database Matches: 8 million  Autosomal SNPs tested (single nucleotide polymorphisms): 650,000
Named for the 23 chromosomes found in human cells, 23andMe offers a battery of tests, including some that analyze health risks like type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. (It was these.)
23andMe earns points for the depth of its medical tests as well as the size of its matching database. Buyers of this test kit should note that the basic DNA test is $ 99, but medical results cost another $ 99.
The added cost may be worth the money; additional information includes genetic health risk information, health reports, trait reports, and carrier status reports that indicate whether a particular DNA profile can be a genetic carrier of a disease or injury.
Your DNA information is collected using a saliva sample that, once analyzed, is permanently stored on 23andMe servers. The service also provides a browser for chromosomes and comparisons, as long as all possible matches approve your access. Matrilineal and patrilineal service testing can geolocate your DNA in more than 1000 regions.
(Appropriate for a genomics company, 23andMe's executive ranks contain some interesting family ties: CEO and co-founder Anne Wojcicki is the former wife of Google co-founder Sergey Brin and sister of YouTube CEO Susan Wojczyk.) 19659020] images “height =” 0 “width =” 270 “data-original =” https://cnet1.cbsistatic.com/img/SpIY5r-652TG2Zm45X8j2yZaG6U=/270×0/2018/06/13/7d078689-b489-4ccd-8422-e87c73efa207 /images.jpg”/> records19659022 DNAimages records19659023: 11Ancestry DNA
- Price: $ 99 (plus $ 9.95 shipping)
- Tests: Autosomal
- Matches Database: 15 million
- Autosomal SNPs tested: 650,000
Genealogy DNA there is a vibrant genealogical community and offers a wide range of databases, research resources and family matching features. The analysis of the company segments your DNA results and traces its origin in 500 geographical regions across Europe, Africa and Asia – the most detailed of each of the services we have profiled. AncestryDNA also says it can help you learn about up to 26 traits and attributes that you inherited from your ancestors.
Pedigree supports a free family tree search tool and you can add your specific results to that database. You can also download your full DNA profile and import this data into another tool, but Ancestry doesn't offer a browser for chromosomes, so you can't make comparisons to DNA segments. Genealogy DNA stores the results forever.
Family Tree DNA
- Price: $ 79 (plus $ 12.95 shipping)
- Tests: Autosomal (other tests, such as mitochondrial DNA test, sold separately)
- Matches Database: 850 000
- Autosomal SNPs tested: 700 000
Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) is managed by the Houston-based Gene-by-Gene Genetic Testing Laboratory. Gene-by-Gene also operates the Genomics Research Center for the National Geographics Genographic Project, which is also profiled in this group.
FTDNA offers a wide range of tests. The basic autosomal test costs $ 79 (plus shipping) and is performed with a swab sample of your cheek cells. You can add sequences and tags, as well as tests on your father's and mother's line, but this will greatly increase the cost.
If you are interested in an in-depth analysis, FTDNA offers a browser for chromosomes, lets you upload raw data, provides support for determining different segment matching thresholds, and allows you to make up to five comparisons at a time. FTDNA allows test transfers of 23andMe and Ancestry DNA into its DNA matching database; additional transfers of different datasets are available for a fee. FTDNA has been promising to store data for 25 years.
- Price: $ 79
- Tests: Autosomal (other tests sold separately)
- Matches Database: 102 million
- Autosomal SNPs tested: 710,000
DNA testing available kits and a suite of online subscription services, MyHeritage says its database includes more ethnicities – that's 42 – than any other major testing service. The free 14-day trial will allow you to browse the vast online DNA database, which includes 3.5 billion profiles in addition to information on over 100 million subscribers and their collective 46 million family trees.
Starting at $ 79, the company's DNA test kit is competitively priced and covers the basics: A simple vest will give an analysis of your ethnic background and identify relatives who share your DNA. In addition to MyHeritage's free basic subscription, which will allow you to assemble a family tree of up to 250 people, there are other packages that harvest larger trees, sophisticated DNA features and healthier research tools. The company allows you to upload test data from other DNA testing companies.
MyHeritage says it has also sold more than one million DNA testing kits – but its huge database is largely from Geni.com, a genealogy social media site that has gathered "the largest family tree in the world, "according to the New York Times. (MyHeritage is the parent company of Geni.com.)
- Price: $ 59 (additional detailed tests optional)
- Tests: Autosomal, Y-DNA
- Matches Database: None
- Tested Autosomal SNP: 850 000
HomeDNA is kind of like Walmart of DNA testing, which is somewhat appropriate, given that the company's testing kits are sold at Walmart stores in addition to CVS, Rite Aid and Walgreens pharmacies.
HomeDNA offers a range of DNA testing services for origin at prices between $ 69 and $ 199. Although the jury is not yet effective on special tests, HomeDNA also sells food and pet sensitivity test kits ($ 99), diets and exercise strategies based on your genetic makeup ($ 119), paternity ( $ 164) and even skin care ($ 99).
Dog owners can buy a DNA test for a dog to help you determine your dog's breed history for $ 125. You can also buy a $ 125 health screening for your dog or cat, which includes a series of tests for genetic diseases and traits. (If you are interested in a dog DNA test for less, https://www.amazon.com/Wisdom-Identification-Canine-Genetic-Ancestry/dp/B01EHX2BH0 offers a dog DNA test kit for under $ 80.)  Testing is done with a mouth swab. Delivery is free. And the results are stored for 25 years.
National Geographic Geno DNA Kit
- Note: This service is no longer available
- Tests: Autosomal, Y-DNA, mtDNA
- Matches database: 230 000
- Autosomal SNPs tested: 700,000
National Geographic completed the public participation phase of its genographic research project on May 31, 2019. Its Geno 2.0 Genetic Genetic Kits are no longer available for purchase. According to the company's website: "If you have already purchased a kit, you can still submit it for processing in accordance with the Terms of Sale."
National Geographic plans to maintain a database where customers can access their results online , by the end of 2020. You can learn more about the project on the National Geographic website.
African genealogy cannot compete on the cost or size of its coincidence database, but it offers a thorough regional analysis. It is a worthy specialized service for people seeking an exploration of African descent.
Instead of a human-matched database, African Ancestry has the largest database in the world of African ancestry. The company can trace your lineage back to a region in Africa and then pinpoint its location today. It can also delve deep into history and help find original ethnic groups that can date back to 500 years ago.
But tests can get quite expensive. The company sells a mother test kit and a paternity test kit for $ 299 each (shipping is free). If you want to trace your family back through male and female ancestors, it will cost you about $ 600. Yet for family stories in Africa, the depth of analysis is unique among the services we have profiled.
- Price: $ 645 (Advanced Detailed Tests Extra)
- Tests: Autosomal, Y-DNA, mtDNA
- Matches Database: None
- Autosomal SNPs Tested: 71,000
] Full Genomes service is so expensive that it offers a payment scheme. But the service offers the largest library of YP SNP chromosomes around. So if you want to explore your patrilineal origin, this is the most complete option on the market. However, there is no database of family matches.
Testing is performed with a cheek pad. The company charges $ 25 for shipping.
- Price: $ 79
- Tests: Autosomal, Y-DNA, mtDNA
- Matches database: Currently started
- Autosomal SNP tested: 638 000
Live DNA is based in the UK, a genomics company that provides autosomal DNA data as well as a breakdown of matrilineal and patrilineal lines. DNA data is collected through a mouth swab.
Living DNA has a very limited family match database, so if you are looking for a service that can connect you with relatives around the world, this is not the one for you. But the Living DNA test is pretty comprehensive: it tests 638,000 autosomal SNPs, 22,500 Y chromosomal SNPs, and 17,800 X chromosomal SNPs, along with 4,700 mitochondrial SNPs.
And the service traces DNA to 80 geographic regions. Those with family history in the UK will see a map of where the ancestors of the islands lived. Although we haven't tested it first-hand, Living DNA says its tools allow you to upload DNA data from other services to predict relationships.
DNA Testing: What You Need to Know
If you are using a DNA home testing service, you are probably looking for one of three things:
Genealogy and family history: The first major draw on a full DNA test is that you will get a detailed breakdown of the ancestry and ethnicity and migration patterns of your common ancestors. Spoiler alert: Your ethnic background may be radically different than you think. You will also find out what a haplogroup is.
Relative identification: With your permission, some DNA services will allow you to connect with relatives you never knew you had – other people with matching DNA who also use the service in the same way he gave his permission to associate with possible relationships.
Health and Disease Information: DNA testing can also indicate which conditions you may prevail. This is a contradictory feature, to be sure. Knowing that you have a genetic predisposition to a particular form of cancer can make you more alert to testing, but it can also lead to increased stress – a worry about a potential health condition that will never develop, even if you are "genetically susceptible" The possibility of false positives and false negatives abounds – any such information should be discussed with your doctor before taking action.
How DNA Tests Work
Are They Afraid of Needles and Running Blood? This is not a n All you have to do is spit in a bottle or rub a swab in your mouth – all the genetic data needed for those tests is present in your saliva – and send the DNA to the company for analysis.  The reason that the saliva sample works, as does the blood (or hair follicles or skin samples), is that your DNA – which is short for deoxyribonucleic acid – is present in all of them. The basic genetic code present in all your cells is your key attribute – from the color of your eyes to the shape of your ears to how susceptible you are to cholesterol.
The key terms to know when comparing DNA testing services are:
SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism): Genotyping is performed by measuring genetic variation. One of the more common is SNP genotyping, which measures variations of a nucleotide polymorphism. In our service summaries below, we discuss the number of SNPs. This is because the more one company measures, the more detailed the variations analyzed. Autosomal DNA testing: Autosomal testing can be applied to both men and women, and traces the lineage back by maternal and paternal line.
Y-DNA: The Y-DNA test can only be administered to men and traces DNA back through patrilineal lineage (mainly from father to grandfather to great-grandfather).
mtDNA: mtDNA is matrilineal and allows you to trace your lineage back through your mother, grandmother and great-grandmother.
Autosomal tests can give you quality genetic information for about four or five generations. Because Y-DNA and mtDNA tests are more focused on one side of the line, you can get information that goes back further but with less family structure data.
Four Important Warnings
Before using any of the services we have highlighted below, consider these important factors.
Match database size: If you are looking for a family relationship, this is important. Simply put, the larger the tank of available data, the greater the chance of finding a match.
Privacy concerns: Nothing is more specific than your health data, so you need to make sure that your future DNA testing site follows the same online security best practices protocols that expect from your bank or email provider. You will want to look for two-factor authentication, an encrypted password database, etc.
But for DNA test providers, you also need to study how they share your genetic data – even anonymously – and how long they store the data. Not only academically: Authorities recently identified a suspect in Golden State killings thanks to DNA and an open source genealogy service known as GEDmatch (not profiled here).
Ако сте изчезнали от това колко информация Facebook, Google и Amazon имат върху вас въз основа на навиците ви за сърфиране в интернет, просто не забравяйте, че тези ДНК тестови услуги получават това, което е ефективно вашата медицинска история. Уверете се в техните правила, преди да прехвърлите тези ценни данни. Освен това, дори ако не споделяте вашата ДНК с услуга, вашите фамилни данни за ДНК може да са налични, ако роднина сподели генетичния си материал. Проблемите с поверителността могат да станат много сложни.
Не очаквайте перфектна точност. Тестовите комплекти могат да ви дадат индикации, но вземането на ДНК тест няма да доведе по магически начин книга с историята на семейството ви.
Консултирайте се с лекар относно всякакви здравни данни: Рак. Левкемия. Сърдечно заболяване. Болест на Алцхаймер. Има много страшни страдания навън и вашето ДНК изследване може да покаже кои от тях сте генетично предразположени. Но маркерите за данни от комплектите за тестване на ДНК съществуват изолирано. Трябва да се консултирате с вашия лекар, за да проучите данните от някой от тези тестове. Те ще ви помогнат да определите как да приложите всяка промяна в начина на живот или последващо тестване в резултат, ако си струва да го направите.
Първоначално публикувано през юли 2018 г.
Актуализация, 30 юли 2019 г.: Добавя нова информация за компанията за AncestryDNA.
Джъстин Джаф от CNET допринесе за тази история.