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Bringing Parts of Mars to Earth in 2031: How NASA and ESA Plan to Do



Unusual patterns of the Red Planet will descend on Earth for over a decade now if everything goes as planned.

NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) work together on the long-awaited Mars return mission which lawyers say is a logical next step in our study of the Red Planet and its potential for life.

"We have to return [Martian] materials and return them to our laboratories," said Brian Muryg, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, during a presentation with NASA's Task Force on Future Space Operations (FISO). last month.

Related to: Mars Life Search (Chronology Picture)

Scientists in laboratories around the world will be able to analyze such samples much more accurately and many more ways than a rover can do on its own on the Red Planet, which helps us to "understand the history of Mars from a biological point of view," adds Muehrhead, who runs the campaign to return the NASA Mars model. Researchers may even find signs of life in these rocks on Mars, which are scheduled to return to Earth in 2031

NASA-ESA's plan is not yet official, Munerhead said, and the details are still under development. But here is the concept of the concept, as it is currently conceived.

Download the sample

The campaign begins next July with the commissioning of the car-sized vehicle Mars 2020 . The six-wheeler is scheduled to be launched in February 2021 in the 30-kilometer Jezero Crater, which hosted the delta of the river in the ancient past. The student naming contest will characterize the geology of Lake, hunts for signs of ancient life, demonstrates various technologies that could allow future human exploration on the Red Planet and perform various other activities, including collecting and

The Rover carries 43 tubes for this purpose, five of which will be "references" that help researchers understand the environment through which other pipes have passed, said Murrayhead. Thus, Mars 2020 could capture a maximum of 38 samples. Ideally, the rover will let some of them into an accessible location and keep others in their bodies, he added.

The next big step comes in 2026, with the launch of the NASA Sample Retrieval Lander (SRL) mission. Will include a stationary trigger fitted with the ESA Sample Fetch Rover (SFR) and a rocket called the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) that will be no more than 10 feet (3 meters) high, Muirhead said.

A mission will touch near the landing site on Mars 2020, and then SFR will hit the red dirt. This little robot will be smaller than the NASA Spirit and Opportunity and will use the technology developed for ESA's Exomar Robertor which is scheduled to begin on Red Planet next summer, only a week after Mars 2020. SFR will not carry scientific instruments, Muirhead said. Her lonely job, as her name suggests, would be to take the samples dropped to Mars 2020 back to the court where they will be placed in the container with orbital size samples of basketball or OS. (The sample return campaign is complex, so it's even heavier than the acronym than most space missions.) If Mars 2020 really sticks to some of its collected samples, this larger rover can also be transferred to the cabin .

"We had to design the trigger to adjust both rovers that come and deliver pipes for us," said Muirhead. The Worst Missions of Mars in History

on the Mars Surface

An overview of the planned NASA-ESA Mars return sample.

(Photo: K. Oldenburg / ESA))

All this will take time. The mission on the surface of LLC is expected to last about eight months, with five months dedicated to attraction, Muirhead said. Meanwhile, MAV will be sitting there waiting for his moment.

"Surface environments have to survive – mostly temperature [low] but dust," Muirhead said. "And then we have to shoot and deliver in orbit to Mars, so it's a challenging environment for rocket propulsion."

The spaceship fired from the surface of the earth moon before – Apollo's missions did so many times – but no vehicle left the much larger Mars after landing there.

MAV specifications are not yet confirmed, Muirhead said. The team backs up two options: a two-tier version of the solid fuel and a one-stage rocket that uses hybrid drive technology. The design decision must come by the end of the year, Muirhead said.

After taking the operating system on board, MAV will launch from the solar engine and deploy the OS container in orbit on Mars, at least 190 miles (300 kilometers) above the surface of the planet. It will be squeezed out of the void of the third major part of this great plan: EBV Earth for Orbiting Return (ERP).

Bringing everything back home

Like the ESE mission, EPO should start in 2026. ESA has recently invited European companies to submit proposals for spacecraft.

"The mission is becoming a reality and we are proud to give European industry a chance to join the challenge," Orson Sutherland, ERO manager,

The ERO will use electric drive and will include multilevel mobile modules using technology , developed for the recently launched BepiColombo mission to Mercury, ESA officials said.

The European Orbital will install the newly captured OS within a sterile retention system and then sterilize the joints of this system, possibly using heat, said Muerheed. Such protocols will ensure that there is no material from Mars coming into the Earth's atmosphere, potentially polluting our planet.

The detention system will be placed in a special entry vehicle that will be deployed by the ERO as the spacecraft approaches the Earth. The incoming vehicle will pass through the atmosphere of our planet and will be stuck in Playah or dry beds in Utah.

The team designed the entry vehicle to operate without parachutes instead of relying on fully passive technologies. This strategy takes a major potential point of failure, said Munheed.

The incoming vehicle will experience a percussion force of about 1000 Gs if it struck dust from Playa, and maybe 3000 Gs if it is unlucky enough to get stuck in a rock, "said Muirhead. (The acceleration of the Earth's surface is due to the gravity of our planet is 1 G.)

"We design both of these [scenarios]," he added.

The target date of landing is 2031. Mars and Earth align favorably on interplanetary launches only once every 26 months. So if SRL and ERO are not ready in 2026, the next option will come in 2028, with the return of 2033 to Earth.

"But besides, we're really losing the MSR [Mars sample return]," Muirhead said. "This is a really good opportunity and we are working hard to pay this opportunity."

Pending Approval

Again, the campaign described above is just a concept right now. Although the federal budget request for 2020 grants some money to NASA to develop the MSR the project is still not officially published in NASA's or ESA's books.

So we do not know how much it will cost. Muirhead said the team treated the campaign as a limited cap, although it is unclear what the cap would be.

The MSR will be difficult to exit, requiring "many missions that will be more challenging and more advanced than any robotic missions," said ESA officials in another statement But the team thinks this is a challenge

"The campaign and design studies we conduct with ESA are going extremely well," said Muerheed. "We are ready to continue with this partnership to meet the targets, pending approval by our respective funding agencies. "

Mike Wall's Book Search of the extraterrestrial life, There, "(Grand Central Publishing, 2018, illustrated by Carl Tate ) has come out. Follow it on Twitter @michaeldwall . Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom or Facebook .


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