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Home https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Science https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Clash with another planet may have stuck the Earth with ingredients for life

Clash with another planet may have stuck the Earth with ingredients for life



The artist's description of the collision between the planet and the planet. New research shows that much of the material that made life on Earth arrived after a catastrophic collision between our planet and a Mars-sized object billions of years ago – probably the same clash who produced the Moon, scientists say. For the life of an otherwise dead planet, different chemical compounds or volatile elements, including carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, are needed. According to conventional thinking, the volatile elements of the Earth have arrived through the constant bombardment of ancient meteorites. A new study, published today in Science Advances, offers an alternative delivery mechanism: a catastrophic clash between the Earth and a Mars-sized object, sometimes called Theia, about 4.4 billion years ago. This hypothetical clash that would have happened while our planet was still shaping sowed our baby planet with the volatile elements necessary for life, according to the new book. Moreover, the leading authors of the new study, Damanveer S. Grewal and Rajdeep Dasgupta of Rice University, say this is the same clash between the planet and the planet that formed the moon.

The artist's description of a planet-planet collision
For many astronomers, geologists and astrobiologists, the notion that Earth's volatile substances have arrived on the back of primitive meteorites has never been completely satisfying. Our planet, along with other rocky planets in the inner solar system, is naturally devoid of volatile substances. It is precisely the case that the isotope signature of the volatile substances on Earth coincides with that observed in carbon chondrites, the class of meteorites are usually referred to as suppliers of volatile substances on Earth. The problem is that the ratios of volatile elements, such as carbon in nitrogen and water to carbon, in terrestrial silicates, mantle, bark, ocean, and atmosphere, are extraordinary to what is observed in the chondrites, leading to the so-called "isotope crisis" doubts about the theory of seeding a meteorite. The new study is interesting in that it offers a solution to this problem – but instead of referring to numerous small meteoric shocks, the authors offer a single giant clash between the Earth and an ancient planet.

The basis for this statement comes from an experiment in which researchers try to mimic the conditions of this impact in the lab. The study includes high-pressure and temperature experiments along with computer simulations fed with the information obtained from these experiments. Through this modeling work, the researchers are trying to determine the size and chemical composition of the impacting planet to see how its silicate reservoir can blend with the Earth by delivering various vital elements. Description of the formation of a Mars-sized planet (left) and the hypothetical collision forming the moon, the result being a planet sown with volatile particles (on the right).

In 2016, Dasgupta is a co-author of a similar book showing how the amount or fractionation of carbon and sulfur in our planet's silicon can be explained by a giant collision with another planet. The new experiment is different in that it examines the fate of three vital volatile elements – carbon, nitrogen and sulfur – as a result of a cataclysmic impact involving two young rocky planets, in addition to estimating the amount of hypothetical impact. "Only carbon and sulfur, unfortunately, can not provide a solution to the origin of volatile substances on Earth," Dasgupta told Gizmodo. Without nitrogen, carbon and sulfur on Earth could also come from primitive meteorites, he explained, as the carbon-sulfur ratio of silicate land is similar to those in the chondry.

"What we are showing in the present work is that when one looks at carbon, nitrogen and sulfur together, giant supply or the merging of the proto-earth with the Mars-sized planet is the most probable solution," he said. To simulate the conditions of this alleged planetary collapse, Dasgupta and his colleagues are also heating up pressure materials that are believed to exist on Earth during its development. This is done to repeat, at least in the microcosm, the conditions of the Earth at a depth of 40 to 120 kilometers (25 to 75 miles). These materials, including silicates and iron-nickel alloy, are then mixed with sulfur, carbon and nitrogen, which is a chemical contribution to the Mars-sized fetal planet. Researchers have carefully monitored the behavior of these materials by changing a number of variables. The results show that carbon is less likely to bind to metallic iron that is mixed with alloys rich in nitrogen and sulfur. At the same time, the nitrogen remains unaffected by sulfur.

"They found that when there is a lot of sulfur in the system, the carbon of the element behaves differently from nitrogen and does not enter the metal so easily, and can produce a ratio of these Elements that correspond to the current ratio of these Elements of the Earth, "said James Day, a professor at the Scripps Oceanography Institute, who did not participate in the new study, and researchers have also shown that the moon's volcanic glass and the Earth's silicate bulk (the kernel substances) have similar isotopic signatures, pointing heads The most likely explanation, the researchers say, is a huge impact on a Mars-sized planet, a collision that has not only delivered most of the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur to our planet, but it has also produced the Moon

. models of methods for supplying variable elements, "Dasgupta told Gizmodo," and also solves the long-standing problem that the ratios of volatile elements on Earth's surface layers differ significantly from building blocks that we know as chondrites. "

The day describes the new study as "thorough." saying that the authors are "experts in experiments to understand the planetary processes," which in his mind "is actually what we are talking about in this article." Indeed, the study is based almost exclusively on experimental evidence and modeling, requiring the authors to make a few assumptions. As Den explained, for example, the materials that formed the Earth may not have been absolutely identical to those used in the study.

According to the new paper, "the pro-earth silicate shell – before colliding with the moon" – The formation of the impact element, at least in this scenario, is bad for carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, Den said. In reality, however, "the abundance of these elements in the mantle of the Earth before the impact of moon formation is unknown," he said. Also, the scenario predicted by the researchers "seems to suggest that the sulfur-rich metal core of the planetary embryo falls into the core of the Earth without ever interacting with silicate envelope," he said, adding that "many simulations show that this it is not. As with the comparison of nitrogen and hydrogen in the lunar volcanic glass with the composition of the Earth, then the claim of common origin, the day was also not convinced. "In itself, the pyrolactic sunglasses of the moon are complex volcanic rocks and the cause of enrichment with water and Nitrogen in these samples is still controversial, "said Gizmodo Day." In addition, in linking the effects of moon formation with nitrogen, carbon and sulfur enrichment, several studies claim that the impact element that forms the Earth- The moon may have been smaller or larger than the Mars-sized body without disturbing geochemical constraints. Finally, Den said the new book is useful for understanding the behavior of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen in relatively small planetary embryonic sizes, and may also be important for understanding how these volatiles work within Mars. "More of these types of research are needed to understand how these elements behave, especially for the Earth's masses," said Day. "However, while this study suggests that Mars is a hit, it is unlikely to be" smoking smoke ", nor how and when the volatiles were delivered to Earth or the size of the striking system forming the system Earth-Moon. " "/>

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A strange theory proposes a completely new explanation of the origin of the moon

The astonishing fun of astronomers is to discuss the origin of the Moon on Earth. Further evidence will be needed to prove the origin of the volatile substances on Earth and the nature of the formation of the moon. The giant hypothesis of influence originally proposed by Canadian geologist Reginald A. Daley in the 1940s is one of many, and the debate remains unresolved.

When asked to outline the newspaper's weaknesses, Dasgupta admits that the work is "entirely based on the geochemical behavior of the elements," which does not include any "dynamics or physical processes involved in planetary accumulation and growth." he would like to do just that by integrating his new geochemical model with physical models.

In other words, this is not over yet.

[Science Advances]


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