Keeping the rise in global average temperature below 1.5 degrees Celsius will avoid the worst impacts of climate change, scientists say. That's compared with 'pre-industrial' times.
The original target for limiting the rise in global average temperature.
The current probable rise in average global temperature by the year 2100 if countries keep their promises to cut emissions of greenhouse gases, which are driving climate change.
A prediction of the likely rise in average temperature by 2100 if no further action is taken.
An action that helps to cope with the effects of climate change ̵
Stands for 'Anthropogenic Global Warming', which means the rise in temperatures caused by floods, creating barriers to hold back rising sea levels or growing crops. human activity like the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. This produces carbon dioxide and other so-called greenhouse gases, which trap heat in the atmosphere and cause the planet to become warmer.
The Arctic Ocean freeze in the winter and much of it then thaws in summer, and the thawing area has increased by 40% over the summer. past few decades.
This article is from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The attribution is the process by which scientists try to explain whether climate change has made a particular weather event – like a heatwave – 19659003] Average temperature
Average temperature of the world is calculated with the help of temperature readings taken from weather stations, satellites and ships and buoys at sea. Currently it stands at 14.9C
Stands for 'Bio Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage'. It is the name of a system in which crops are grown (which draws carbon dioxide from the air) and when they are burned to make electricity, carbon emissions are captured and then stored.
A fuel derived from renewable sources, including crops such as maize, palm trees,
Biomass is a plant or animal material used to produce energy or as raw materials for other products. The simplest example is cow dung;
Carbon is a chemical element that is sometimes described as a building block for all life on Earth because it is found in most plants and animal life . It is also found in fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas, and when burned, it is emitted as a gas called carbon dioxide
The trapping and removal of carbon dioxide gas from the air. The gas can then be reused or injected into deep underground reservoirs. Carbon capture is sometimes referred to as geological sequestration.
Carbon dioxide is a gas in the Earth's atmosphere. It occurs naturally and is also a by-product of human activities such as burning fossil fuels.
The amount of carbon emitted by an individual or organization in a given period of time, or the amount of carbon emitted during the manufacture of a product. 19659003] Carbon neutral
A process where there is no net release of carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, growing biomass takes CO2 out of the atmosphere, while burning it releases the gas again. The process would be carbon neutral if the amount taken out and the amount released were identical. A company or country can also achieve carbon neutrality by means of carbon offsetting. The phrase 'net zero' has the same meaning.
Carbon offsetting is most commonly used in relation to air travel. It allows passengers to pay extra to help compensate for the carbon emissions generated by their flight. The money is then invested in environmental projects – like planting trees or installing solar panels – which reduces carbon dioxide in the air by the same amount. Some activists have criticized carbon offsetting as an excuse to continue polluting, arguing that it does little to change behavior.
Anything that absorbs more carbon dioxide than it emits. In Nature, the main carbon sinks are rainforests, oceans and soil.
Stands for 'Carbon Capture and Utilisation'.
A pattern of change affecting global or regional climate, as measured by average temperature and rainfall, and how it can be used to produce carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. often extreme weather events like heatwaves or heavy rain happen. This variation may be caused by both natural processes and humans.
Climate models are computer simulations of how climate, oceans, land, plants, and ice behave under various levels of greenhouse gases. This helps scientists come up with projections for what Earth will be like as global warming continues.
Climate negotiations take place every year as the United Nations brings together governments to discuss action to stop climate change. The goal is usually a collective agreement to reduce carbon emissions by certain dates. The latest of these is the Paris Agreement of 2015 which set the targets of limiting warming to 2C or 1.5C if possible. Negotiations are always difficult, because many countries are heavily dependent on fossil fuels and worries about the effects of any change on their economies
Means carbon dioxide, a naturally occurring gas which is also a major product of human activity such as burning fossil fuels. Increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere means more heat is retained, causing the planet to warm up.
Stands for 'Conference of the Parties'. It is the name for the annual UN Climate Change Convention (see UNFCCC).
A UN climate summit was held in Copenhagen in 2009, which has come to an end, with countries agreeing to a non-binding agreement that climate change was "one of the greatest challenges of the present day ".
Coral bleaching refers to the change in the color of coral reefs when the ocean temperature rises above a certain level, forcing the corals to eject the coral reefs algae they normally co-exist with – this turns them white.
The clearing of forests to make way for farming such as soy crops to feed livestock or palm oil for consumer products.
Climate deniers believe that climate change is taking place because of natural processes and that human activity has no role. They dispute the work of many thousands of experts around the world, whose research has been peer-reviewed and published and is based on research stretching back more than a century
Emissions are any release of gases such as carbon which cause global warming, a major cause of climate change. They can be a small scale in the form of exhaust from a car or methane from a cow or larger scale such as those from coal-burning power stations and heavy industries
Extreme weather is any type of unusual, severe or unseasonal weather. Examples might be major heat waves, with temperature records broken, extended droughts as well as cold spells and heavier than usual rainfall. Scientists predict that extreme weather will become more common as the world becomes warmer.
In a feedback loop, rising temperatures change the environment in ways that affect the rate of warming. Feedback loops can add to the rate of warming or reduce it. As the Arctic sea-ice melts, the surface changes from a bright reflective white to a dark blue or green, which allows more of Sun's rays to be absorbed.
Fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas were formed when tiny plants and animals flourished in the ancient past, absorbing carbon from the atmosphere, before dying and being crushed over millions of years.
Geo-engineering is any technology that could be used to halt or even reverse climate change. Examples include the extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and the storage of it underground, to more far-fetched ideas such as deploying vast mirrors in space to deflect Sun's rays. Some scientists say geo-engineering may be essential because it is not enough to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The steady rise in global average temperature over the last decades
, which experts say is mostly caused by human-produced greenhouse gas emissions.
Green energy, sometimes called renewable energy, is generated from natural, replenishable sources. Examples are wind and solar power as well as biomass made of compressed wood pellets.
Natural and human-produced gases that trap heat in the atmosphere and warm the surface. The Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and is the only source of carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride. flows to the east coast of the United States and across the Atlantic Ocean. Scientists believe Europe would be significantly cooler without it. There is a fear that the stream could be disrupted if rising temperatures melt more polar ice, bringing an influx of freshwater
A hydrocarbon is a substance consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a scientific body established by the United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization. Its role is to examine and evaluate the latest scientific research into climate change. Its report in 2018 warned that the rise in global temperatures would be limited to 1.5C to avoid dangerous impacts
A jetstream is a narrow band of fast-flowing air at high altitude which acts as a major influence on the weather.
A set of rules agreed at Kyoto in Japan in 1997, in which 84 developed countries they agreed to reduce their combined emissions by 5.2% of their level in 1990.
A term used to describe people who believe that climate change is real, and that its effects will not be
Methane is a gas that traps about 30 times more heat than carbon dioxide. It is produced by human activity from agriculture – cows emit large amounts – as well as waste dumps and leaks from coal mining. Methane is also emitted naturally from wetlands, termites and wildfires. One big concern is that carbon stored in frozen ground in arctic regions will be released as methane as temperatures rise and ground thaws. This could cause extra, unpredictable global warming.
Action that will reduce human-driven climate change.
This is a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by switching to renewable energy, or capturing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere by planting forests. . For example, growing biomass takes CO2 out of the atmosphere, while burning it releases the gas again. The process would be net zero if the amount taken out and the released amount were identical. A company or country can also achieve net zero by means of carbon offsetting.
The ocean absorbs approximately a quarter of human carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, which helps to reduce the effect of climate change. However, when CO2 is dissolved in seawater, carbonic acid is formed. Carbon emissions from the industry over the last 200 years have already begun to alter the chemistry of the world's oceans. If this trend continues, marine creatures will find it harder to build their shells and skeletal structures, and coral reefs will be killed off.
The ozone layer is part of Earth's high atmosphere, which contains a large concentration of gas molecules comprising three oxygen atoms called ozone. Ozone helps filter out harmful ultraviolet light from Sun, which can increase the risk of skin cancer. In the 1980s and 1990s, industrial gases called chlorofluorocarbons (or CFCs) were banned because they damaged the ozone layer.
PPM / ppm
An abbreviation for 'parts per million' used to describe the concentration of a gas such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggested in 2007 that global greenhouse gas emissions should be set at 450 ppm CO2 equivalent in order to prevent dangerous climate change. Some scientists, and many of the countries most vulnerable to climate change, argue that the safe upper limit is 350ppm. Modern levels of CO2 broke through 400ppm (at the Mauna Loa Laboratory in Hawaii) in 2013, and continue to climb at about 2-3ppm per year
Scientists use a baseline with which to compare the modern rise in temperatures on Earth. The baseline is often quoted from 1850 to 1900, and global temperatures have risen by about 1C since then. The reality, of course, is that industry has actually gone much earlier, but there is nevertheless a perceptible uptick in the levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by 1850-1900, and the period is therefore considered to be a useful marker.
Normally refers to energy sources such as biomass (such as wood and biogas), the flow of water, geothermal
Runaway climate change  Describes how the climate change may suddenly change after passing a tipping point, making it even harder to stop or reverse. In 2018, the IPCC said that global emissions must be reduced by 45% by 2030, and to zero by 2050 this will have a 50% chance of limiting temperature rising to 1.5C this century
Sea-ice is found in polar regions. It grows in extent and thickness in autumn and winter, and melts in spring and summer. The amount of sea-ice in the Arctic is seen as a key indicator of climate trends because the region is warming faster than most other locations on Earth. The largest ever extent in the satellite era of Arctic Sea-ice was recorded in September 2012. The 3.41 million square kilometer was 44% below the 1981-2010 average
Sea level rises
Rising sea levels are predicted it is one of the most drastic impacts of climate change. In this context, there are two main causes for sea-level rise: (1) the expansion of seawater as the oceans warm; and (2) the run-off into the ocean of water from the melting ice sheet and glaciers. Current sea levels are about 20cm higher in average than they were in 1900.
Sustainability means consuming the planet's resources at a rate at which they can be replenished. It's sometimes known as 'sustainable development'. Types of renewable energy such as solar or wind power are described as sustainable, while using wood from managed forests where trees are replanted according to how many are cut down is another example
Describes how the climate may suddenly change after passing a tipping point, making it even harder to stop or reverse. Scientists say it is urgent that policy-makers halve global carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 or risk triggering changes that could be irreversible
Stands for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This is an international treaty, signed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, which states that countries should work to stabilize the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to avoid a dangerous climate change