The effects of climate change on health will be unevenly distributed and children will be among the most harmed, according to a new report by The Lancet medical journal.
The report compares the effects on human health in two scenarios: one in which the world fulfills the commitments set out in the Paris Agreement and reins in emissions so that global temperature increases remain "well below 2 degrees Celsius' until the end of the century, and one in which he did not .
A report published on Wednesday found that if the absence of emissions limits would lead to health problems caused by infectious diseases, worsening air pollution, fever and malnutrition.
"Climate change and air pollution from fossil fuels that keep it threaten it for the health of the child, starting in the mother's womb and only accumulating there," she said.
are especially vulnerable in part because of their physiology.
Hearts beat faster than adults and their breathing rates are higher than adults, "says Dr. Mona Sarfaty program director for Climate and Health at the George Mason University Communication Center for Climate Change
As a result, children abs raise more air pollution by their body size than an adult in the same situation.
But unless nations stop emissions air, which, according to the report, killed seven million people worldwide in 2016 alone is likely to increase. Combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and gas also releases a type of fine air pollution called PM 2.5, which can to damage the heart and the lungs in the ing. Exposure to air pollution with PM 2.5 is associated with health issues such as low birth weight and chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma.
In addition to fossil fuel emissions, the report said future generations would be exposed to increasing f o pollution with fine particulates: fires.
As temperatures rise, fires become more frequent in part because hotter temperatures dry the vegetation, which facilitates their ignition. Smoke, similar to the smoke that comes from burning fossil fuels, has negative health effects.
According to the report, since the middle of this decade, there has been an increase of 77 percent of the number of people exposed to smoke in the world in width . Much of this growth is in India and China. T he 2018 season in the California Wildfire season, though, when campfire turned into the deadliest and most destructive blaze in terms of burned decares, and this year wildfire season make it clear that rising fires are occurring in the United States as well.
In the Western United States, the increase in giant fires has exacerbated enough air pollution to erode some of the air quality enhancements of the Clean Air Act.
"You have young children who avoid fires that go practically will be challenged for life," said Gina McCarthy, a former administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. " There are mental health issues arising from these climatic events and fires and floods that children have never encountered, certainly not with the frequency and intensity that they must now face."  The report says that there are many links between climate change and mental health, including loss of property and loss of livelihood, but no longer quantify the impact.
Part of the risk of exposure to children is simply that they spend more time outside than adults. Combined with their different physiology, this makes them more susceptible to fine particulate contamination. These same factors also mean that they are more likely to suffer from the effects of extreme heat related to climate change; eight of the ten hottest years have happened in this decade
The European heatwaves in 2003 resulted in the death of 70,000 people. "We know that climate change has had its fingerprints there, and that's a concern," said Sai Executive Editor Dr. Nick Watts, adding that the subsequent heat waves "have led to the deaths of tens of thousands . " While many of these people were elderly, young people also suffer.
As heat waves get heavier, parents and coaches "may not realize that children are more exposed and therefore more vulnerable," Dr. Sarfati said.
A 2017 report that she helped prepare found that heat-related diseases in the United States are the leading cause of death and injury d in young athletes.
This is the third time Lancet has dealt with the effects of climate change on health, but the first with a focus on children . "Both of our negative claims were that the health costs are huge and undervalued. But also, more positively, putting health first in our climate response has had dividends for both the public and the economy in terms of cleaner, safer cities and healthier diets. " Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The
To this end, the report contains glimpses of hope. The carbon intensity, or how much energy can be produced for each unit of greenhouse gas released, has increased. And more cities are submitting climate assessments detailing the solutions that can be implemented. But these actions occur against the background of greenhouse gas emissions which continue to increase.
A child born today will live on average by 2090 says Dr. Watts, noting that without changes in greenhouse gas emissions, the planet could be warmed by 4 degrees by then. " W approximately know what this looks like from a climate point of view," he says. "We have no idea what this looks like in terms of public health. But we know it's catastrophic."
The report and its focus on children comes at a time when the climate demonstrations of youth, including the strikes of school strikes led by Greta Thunberg, the Sunrise movement and the Disappearance movement, attracted attention.
"This may be the first time in the history of the United States that there are children who wonder whether they will have a future, whether they should have children as a result of the potential for climate change to worsen and worsen," M s. McCarthy said.
This year, Jamie Margolin, the 17-year-old founder of the Climate Activists Group Zero Hour testifies before Congress: "Everyone who will come to me after this testimony says I have such a bright future ahead of m e will lie to my face, "she said. "It doesn't matter how talented we are, how much work we put in, how many dreams we have, the reality is that my generation is committed to a planet that is falling apart."