Austrian and Chinese scientists were able to teleport three-dimensional quantum states for the first time. High teleport may play an important role in future quantum computers.
Researchers from the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna have experimentally proven what was previously only a theoretical possibility. Together with quantum physicists at the Chinese University of Science and Technology, they were able to teleport complex, high-dimensional quantum states. Research teams first report this internationally in the journal Physical Review Letters .
In their study, the researchers teleported the quantum state of one photon (light particle) to another distant one. Previously, only two-level ("cubed") states were transmitted, i.e. information with values "0" or "1
A new experimental method
From the 1990s, it is known that multidimensional quantum teleportation is theoretically possible. However: "First, we had to develop an experimental method for large-scale teleportation, as well as to develop the necessary technologies," says Manuel Erhard of the Vienna Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.  The quantum state to be teleported is encoded in the possible paths that a photon can walk. One can depict these paths as three optical fibers. Most interestingly, in quantum physics, a photon can be located in all three optical fibers at the same time. To teleport this three-dimensional quantum state, researchers use a new experimental method. The nucleus of quantum teleportation is the so-called Bell measurement. It is based on a multiport beam splitter that directs photons through multiple inputs and outputs and binds all the fibers together. In addition, scientists have used assisted photons – they are also sent to the multiple splitter and can interfere with other photons.
By skillfully selecting certain models of interference, quantum information can be transferred to another photon, far from the photon input, without the two ever interacting physically. The experimental concept is not limited to three dimensions, but can in principle be extended to any number of dimensions, as Ehrhardt points out.
Higher information capabilities for quantum computers
With this international study, the team also made an important step toward practical applications such as the future quantum Internet, as high-dimensional quantum systems can transport more information from the cubites. "This result could help connect quantum computers to information capacity outside the qubits," says Anton Zeilinger, a quantum physicist at the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna, on the innovative potential of the new method.
Participating Chinese researchers also see great opportunities in multidimensional quantum teleportation. "The foundations for next-generation quantum network systems are built on our fundamental research today," said Jian-Wei Pan of China's University of Science and Technology. Recently, Pan gave a lecture in Vienna at the invitation of the University of Vienna and the Academy.
In future work, quantum physicists will focus on how to extend the newly acquired knowledge to enable the whole quantum state to be teleported to a single photon or atom.
One step closer to sophisticated quantum teleportation
Yi-Han Luo et al. High Quantum Teleportation, Physical Review Letters (2019). Doi: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.123.070505
University of Vienna
Complex quantum teleportation achieved for the first time (2019, 23 August)
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