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Eight Ways The World Can End! How supervolcanoes, robots and even ALIENS can cause apocalypse



A science journalist identified eight ways the world could end, with deadly biotechnology, Terminator-style robots and nuclear war being the biggest threats to life on Earth.

Brian Walsh, 41, a former foreign correspondent and author from Brooklyn, also addressed climate change, super volcanoes, asteroids, diseases and even aliens in his new book.

End Times: A Short Guide to the End of the World came after Mr. Walsh spent two years examining the horrific ways the world could face in Armageddon.

He estimated both the severity of each disaster and the likelihood of it actually occurring.

Mr Walsh says, " I don't want people to feel that we are" again doomed and the world will end tomorrow and other things.

"I want them to see that in each of these risks there are things that are being done or what we could be doing.

"We have to make sure that these catastrophes do not happen, because you cannot simply hide in a hole for years to avoid this. “

Biotechnology

Probability: High

Weight: 1

0/10

The most credible and disturbing threat to planet Earth is biotechnology, according to Mr. Walsh.

He fears that extremist scientists who experiment with diseases can produce a supervirus that can resist vaccines and antiviral drugs, with the intention of taking a large amount out of the human race.

The use of genetic engineering in diseases, he notes, can change people's lives for the better, but the catastrophe that can occur if done incorrectly or in the wrong hands can put an end to the world.

  The most credible and alarming threat to planet Earth is biotechnology (file photo) according to Mr. Walsh [19659016] The most credible and alarming threat to planet Earth is biotechnology (file photo), according to Mr. Walsh [19659016] The most plausible and alarming threat to planet Earth is biotechnology (file photo), according to Mr. Walsh </p>
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<p class= He has made a sinister point t hat in recent years ISIS and earlier al Qaeda have sought to arm smallpox, disease contained in 1977

Mortality from a disease such as this or more recent aha Ebola, combined with the degree of infection from colds can cause chaos, creating "perfect bioweapon."

Mr Walsh says: This is the ability to use new technologies such as editing genes for engineering viruses that would be worse than, infectious and more deadly than anything in nature. "

In one example he uses, the Johns Hopkins Health Center in Washington DC found that 150 million people would be killed by a biotechnological disease – 2 percent of the world's population.

The new effect of this also turns out to be expensive in the experiment as economies collapse and unemployment rises.

The terror caused by the public awareness that the killer disease is not as ugly as it usually is, but caused by the "malice" of the radicals or "an alienated scientist" will only contribute to a pandemic.

And if produced, the strain could be repeatedly introduced to the public, leaving doctors and scientists fighting a lost battle to treat the affected.

"It's worrying because just a normal disease can kill many people," says Mr. Walsh, "but if you create something in the laboratory on purpose or by accident, it would be even more powerful than anything in nature, then it is really dangerous. "

Criminals may not be that far from accessing deadly bio-weapons.

Mr Walsh warns that unlike in the past, only a small number of twisted virologists are needed to make terrorists dream come true.

And, as he adds, there are about 1 million scientists who have the capacity to undertake a similar task.

But there is hope.

Mr. Walsh is also burying himself in the connected world of gene sequencing, where researchers now have the means to quickly diagnose diseases to stop their spread undetected.

He says it

This, Mr. Walsh says, can be a way to counter a supervirus epidemic – with an equally powerful engineering antidote that can suppress bugs in the affected before killing millions.

Artificial Intelligence

Probability: Medium

Weight: 7/10

Another product of man's huge advances in technology is the fear that the Terminator movie may already be realized.

A breakthrough in artificial intelligence (AI) has blown up over the last decade as creators want to meet the growing demand for robots to facilitate home life.

But can it threaten the world in the same way as Arnold Schwarzenegger's cyber-killer in 1985.

  Another product of man's enormous advances in technology is the fear that the Terminator movie (pictured) may already to be realized

Another product of the great advancement of people in technology is the fear that the movie about The Terminator (pictured) can now be implemented

Mr Walsh Miss so: "If we can actually develop an AI that is truly intelligent, it can think of a talent as a creature that is really disturbing. "

He warns:" It may mean that it can conquer us, literally. "

In a shocking demonstration of the transfer of power, he added:" We will be accountable. "

The threat stems from the fact that computers are now" learning to learn, "taking away the control that humans have.

Fortunately, Mr. Walsh says that machines are currently restricted by humans in what they

But their ability to store vast amounts of data and process it much faster than the human brain means that they can become far superior to intellect – "super intelligent," as he puts it Mr. Walsh.

And our wide presence on this planet, according to the author, could hinder the plans of the robots and lead to our disappearance, in the same way that humans have less intelligent animals, like the dodo and western black rhino.

Yet, as with bioengineering, there is a downside – since the creation of over-intelligence could lead to super opportunism

The potential to live forever through "consciousness in the virtual sky" could make AI our ally and savior, not a murderer.

At this stage, however, Mr. Walsh says, "It's really hard to say [which way it will go] because it depends on what you do with AI.

"We are essentially at the top of this planet's food chain because we are the smartest created species."

And yet he adds, "But if we create a smarter species than us, it would be potentially disturbing . "

Nuclear War

Probability: High

Weight: 9/10

The Nuclear War is probably the largest

The huge stockpile of weapons that came after World War II and increased tensions between superpowers such as the US, Russia and China in recent years have the potential to cause disaster.

The largest and most powerful fusion bomb ever blown is the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb, wn as the "King Bomb".

The kernels were tested by the Soviet Union on October 30, 1961, making it more than 50 years old.

  Nuclear war is probably the most talked about and expected way of the world end (file photo)

Nuclear war is perhaps the most discussed and expected way the world will end (file photo) [19659018] But the devastating bomb had the explosive power of 3,800 Hiroshima bombs and sent a mushroom cloud of 130,000 feet, or four and a half Mount Everest.

It is estimated that 166,000 deaths have occurred as a result of the attack on Hiroshima, meaning King Bomb has the potential to eradicate 630,800,000.

This is about two in the United States.

Mr Walsh calls the nuclear threat "the last veil of humanity."

"[Nuclear war] is still a major concern and has actually worsened in recent years, as you already have. EurLex-2 en With the US under Trump, Russia under Vladimir Putin, both have been withdrawn from global arms control treaties,"

Referring to the massive explosion of Nyonoksa in Russia on August 8, he added: "You know that a few weeks ago we saw the catastrophe about one of its nuclear weapons programs in Russia.

"This is quite disturbing and you see a lot of aggression there, as well as in China."

In his book, Mr. Walsh delves into the history of the nuclear bomb and traces it since its creation in World War II during the Cold War. war to your own experience of the nuclear threat.

He notes how the American scientists and military commanders at that time

  The largest and most powerful thermonuclear bomb ever detonated was the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb, known as the & # 39; King Bomb & # 39; (pictured)

The largest and most powerful fusion bomb the ever-detonated bomb is the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb, known as the "King Bomb" (pictured)

He believes that for politicians then and now the short-term success of having a more powerful nuclear arsenal overshadows any attempt to consider the long-term threat.

He says, "I think we have to choose leaders who are smart enough to move away from ba, we realize that we do what we do at the end of the Cold War, where leaders come together and create agreements that reduce the heads of war.

"We need people, the public, to push them to do this. There used to be public opinion about it, but they are not as attached today. "

The prospect of a nuclear war remains incredible and unthinkable in the life of everyday people.

This "still refutes reality," he adds.

Mr. Walsh feels, despite the threats from the other seven factors discussed in his book, that nuclear energy is "the most significant existential risk we face. at the moment, today. "

He tells us that there is no protection against them and that they have the potential to" ruin the whole planet and even end our species. "

He notes to a man," It freaks me out to know that my son was born in a world where that fear is very real again. "

However, Mr. Walsh discusses the things that people can do to survive a nuclear war.

It may be surprising, he says," patting and concealing is actually good advice.

Yet, this is only for small-size nuclear weapons, such as the kiloton-ra nge bomb.

In the event of a total nuclear war, he quotes historian Alex Wellerstein as saying, "You can't do much."

Supervolcanoes

Probability: Medium

Weight: 5/10 [19659012] Supervolcanoes are the most dangerous natural existential threat, according to Mr. Walsh.

Dangerous asteroids can be traced for decades before they can hit Earth, while humans know much less about the much closer to home threat of volcanoes.

And the devastation can be scheduled to happen at any time, with Mr Walsh quoting the conclusions of Bristol University scientist Jonathan Rugge that the explosion could be once every 17,000 years. a dangerous natural existential threat, according to Mr. Walsh ” class=”blkBorder img-share” />

Supervolcanoes (stock photo) are the most dangerous natural existential rubs to eat, according to Mr. Walsh

The last one was over 26,000 years ago, which we were late.

Mr. Walsh cites Yellowstone Park in Wyoming as a sobering example.

At the home of the world's most famous super volcano, he has seen three devastations in the last 2.1 million years, writes Mr Walsh, and he is still heavily active.

If it were to explode, it would be life-threatening as the magnate casts out of its 28-mile-wide caldera, caused by the last blast 640,000 years ago.

Mr Walsh outlines how a super volcano could potentially put an end to

There will be powerful earthquakes as magma enters the earth's surface, followed by a "titanic eruption", until a huge toxic discharge erupts through

to swallow 40 miles around the national park, and continue to spit ash and gas for days.

It is these gases that pose a wider threat to life on Earth, as they would eject 15 miles into the atmosphere and sink much of the United States into the darkness, tearing people's tissues and feeding into their lungs. [1 9659105] Mr. Walsh cites Yellowstone Park (pictured) in Wyoming as a sobering example. At the home of the world's most famous super volcano, he has seen three devastations in the last 2.1 million years, writes Mr Walsh, while he is still very active ” class=”blkBorder img-share” />

Mr Walsh cites Yellowstone Park (pictured) in Wyoming as a sobering example. According to the world's most famous super volcano, it has seen three super destructions in the last 2.1 million years, writes Mr. Walsh, and he is still very active

The eruption of a yellowstone super volcano can cost $ 3 trillion, according to federal Emergency Management Agency study cited by Mr. Walsh, but the amount is a real figure.

Mr Walsh says: "There will definitely be concern that, if it erupts, there will be continental, even global, effects of volcanic ash around the United States, as temperatures fall, it will be difficult to farm and will you end up starving globally. "

Yet he added:" It is disturbing, but again it is very unlikely to happen. "

Aliens

Probability: low

Weight: 3/10

After covering the very real threats posed by nuclear bombs, biotechnology and volcanoes the unknown alien threat may seem like a strange head to have in the book. [19659013] But Mr. Walsh is adamant that with the vast number of planets in the universe, there remains the potential for another intelligent life that can cause our extinction.

"This is two-sided," he says, adding, "If there was an extraterrestrial species that could actually reach Earth, it would be technologically more advanced than us that we would be essentially helpless against it. "

  Mr Walsh is adamant that with the huge number of planets in the universe, there remains the potential for another intelligent life that can cause our extinction (file photo)

Mr Walsh is adamant that with the vast number of planets in the universe there remains the potential for another intelligent life that can caused our disappearance (file photo)

"don't look like Independence Day or any of these films would be like the US military accepting a primitive tribe. "

However, Mr Walsh admits that the question is not how we can repel their attacks – as he says we could do little – but the age-old question of whether or not they exist.

He says, "And then there is the other risk, if aliens do not exist, that is a concern, because it may mean that in the development of technologies such as civilization, you are likely to destroy yourself. "

It would be like the US military taking a primitive tribe.

He goes on:" The more we learn about space, the more we see that there are planets that you have to support life, there is quite a bit, so if there is nothing, then it's just weird and makes you think that there was something there, but they were destroyed or destroyed on their own. "

Mr Walsh adds:" And that may mean it can happen to us. "

He thinks we should be mortified, especially since after decades of research, no concrete evidence of aliens has ever been found.

Mr Walsh says: "Look at this planet and you see two cultures with many different technological levels that meet each other – it's usually bad for one of them. And so I look at it.

"When the Europeans came to America, we saw what happened there.

"I think the aliens coming to our Earth would be similar. Всъщност бихте имали подобен вид унищожаване. “

Астероиди

Вероятност: ниска

Тежест: 3/10

Филми като блокбастърът от 1998 г. Армагедон и съдбата на динозаврите са обхванали въображението на обществото за огромен астероид, който свършва нашата планета.

Но г-н Уолш смята, че шансовете за това са не само ниски, но и не биха били унищожително, ако се случи.

Той отбелязва, че има 0,000005 процента вероятност „астероид на ниво изчезване“ да удари Земята за година.

 Г-н Уолш чувства шансовете за астероид прекратяването на живота на Земята е не само ниско, но и не би било пагубно, ако се случи

Той обяснява, че с динозаврите астероидът Chicxulub разбива морското дъно в Мексико, освобождавайки необичайно големи залежи на сяра.

Тези отразяват слънцето , така че когато се изстреля в атмосферата, той се свърза с облаци, за да спре топлината и дневната светлина, достигащи Земята.

Тъмнината продължи две години и именно това и ефектът, който имаше върху хранителните ресурси, доведоха до голямото изчезване, а не самият астероид.

Г-н Уолш каза за Space.com: „S нещо като астероиди: Има причина защо правим филми за това. Има нещо кинематографично в идеята, че нещо идва от космоса и се затваря във вас и това ще унищожи света. “

Но журналистът уверява, че изчезването на астероиди е това, което може да бъде изключено сега. [19659013] Големите скали могат да бъдат проследявани години, преди да се нанесат на Земята, което дава шанс на астрономите да разработят план за отбрана.

Правителството на САЩ миналата година засили плановете за защита на планетата от входящи астероиди, които биха могли да унищожат. цели региони или дори континенти.

Националният съвет за наука и технологии публикува на 21 юни доклад с 20 страници, в който призовава за подобряване на откриването, проследяването и отклоняването на астероиди.

Инициативата, подкрепена от НАСА, федералните служители в извънредните ситуации и белите Дом има за цел да координира усилията през следващото десетилетие за откриване и реагиране на евентуални заплахи в близост до Земята, ако възникнат.

Близоземни обекти (NEO) включват всички астероиди и комети, които

Засега учените не знаят за никакви астероиди или комети, които да тръгнат по нашия път. Но човек може да се промъкне над нас – и затова правителството въведе по-добър план.

Климатични промени

Вероятност: Среден

Тежест: 4/10

Заплахата от изменението на климата е обхванала светът през последните месеци, независимо дали става въпрос за шведската активистка за подрастваща Грета Тунберг или за широко разпространените пожари, обхванали Амазонка през последния месец.

Но г-н Уолш не смята, че е толкова вероятно да причини нашето изчезване като биотехнологиите и други хора –

"Не мисля, че според мен вероятно това ще е екзистенциална заплаха", казва той, "това ще направи света много трудно място, много трудно място, но вероятно няма да ни убие всички в по този начин. “

 Заплахата от изменението на климата обхвана света през последните месеци, независимо дали става дума за шведската активистка за тийнейджъри Грета Тунберг или за широко разпространените пожари, обхванали Амазонка (на снимката) през последния месец. Но г-н Уолш не смята, че е толкова вероятно да доведе до изчезването ни, тъй като биотехнологиите и други предизвикани от човека проблеми

Заплахата от изменението на климата обхвана света през последните месеци, независимо дали става въпрос за шведската активистка за тийнейджър Грета Тунберг или широко разпространената пожари, обхванали Амазонка (на снимката) през последния месец. Но г-н Уолш не смята, че е толкова вероятно да предизвика нашето изчезване, тъй като биотехнологиите и други предизвикани от човека проблеми

Историята на г-н Уолш е в отчитането на изменението на климата и смята, че вниманието, което тази тема получава през последните месеци, е било

След като го изследва, той чувства аргумента, че изменението на климата може да сложи край на нашата планета само за няколко години, може да се окаже недостатъчно.

От времето си, когато посещава конференции за климата, той също забелязва този свят лидерите, както и обикновените хора, не желаеха да действат и да ограничават енергийната си употреба.

Той казва в книгата: „Ние не сме вид, който планира дълбоко в бъдещето. Ние не сме вид, който е нетърпелив да поставя ограничения върху себе си. Ние сме вид, който предпочита да остане една крачка пред бедствията от собственото си създаване, който е готов да направим достатъчно, за да продължим. “

Той добави към Vox:„ Мисля, че имаме повече време, но това е нещо където трябва да помислим за по-мащабните технологични поправки, защото всъщност нямам много увереност в способността на човечеството да се справи с нещо, което е риск, който винаги ще бъде за по-нататъшното бъдеще. “

Инфекциозна болест

Вероятност: ниска

Тежест: 1/10

Инфекциозните болести сами по себе си биха били малко вероятни да застрашат нашия вид, като тежестта на него също се прецени като нисък от г-н Уолш.

„Вероятно е нисък, защото често виждаме заплахата от природата. Вземете нещо като Ебола, което е смъртоносно, но не се разпространява много бързо, казва той.

„Или нещо като настинка или морбили, които се разпространяват много бързо, но не ви убиват.“

Той добавя : „Така че от това са необходими биотехнологии, за да се съберат нещо, което би могло да направи и двете, и това би било необходимо, за да застрашите целия вид.“

 Инфекциозните болести сами по себе си биха били много малко вероятно да застрашат нашия вид с тежестта от него също беше оценен като нисък от г-н Уолш. „Вероятно е ниска, защото често виждаме заплахата от природата. Вземете нещо като Ебола (на снимката), която е смъртоносна, но не се разпространява много бързо “, казва той

Инфекциозните болести сами по себе си биха били малко вероятни да застрашат нашия вид, като тежестта на него също се прецени като ниска от Г-н Уолш. „Вероятно е ниска, защото често виждаме заплахата от природата. Вземете нещо като Ебола (на снимката), което е смъртоносно, но не се разпространява много бързо ", казва той

Това е единствената екзистенциална заплаха, писана в End Times, за която журналистът каза, че всъщност е бил свидетел.

Facing надолу по смъртоносната ТОРС (тежък остър респираторен синдром) по време на работа в Хонконг през 2003 г. той видя как болестта може да се появи от нищото и да опустоши една общност.

Но той каза, че е научил, че винаги има време за инфекциозни заболявания, те изчезват в неизвестност толкова бързо, колкото са при стигнали.

Това се дължи на по-високата хигиена през двадесет и първи век, като има тенденция да благоприятства по-леките заболявания, които могат да се разпространят бързо.

В пример, г-н Уолш казва: „Освен ако не се случи да се появи в среда, толкова екстремна и рядка като окоп от Първата световна война, грипният вирус, който убива за един ден, е ограничен в способността си да се разпространява и така губи до по-меката версия, която само ви кара да желаете да сте мъртви. "

  • Крайни времена: Кратко ръководство към края на Светът от Брайън Уолш е достъпен от Hachette Books

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