The question we can see in the universe is only 15 percent of what we are I think is there based on the rate of expansion. This missing mass is known as dark matter and has many ideas about what it is and how we can find it. One of the most popular suspects is a theoretical particle called an ultralight boson. If they existed, the ultralight bosons would be so small that they would not interact with almost anything else in the universe – except, perhaps, some black holes.
Quantum theory predicts that objects on very small scales, such as the ultralight boson, do not work in the same way as larger ones, which obey classical physics. We don’t know how small the ultralight boson is, but as the name suggests, it is small. This means that there must be what is known as Compton’s wavelength, which is inversely proportional to its mass. Therefore, the ultralight boson has an extremely long wavelength, which can overlap with certain black holes. This would cause particles to accumulate around the black hole and slow down the speed of rotation. If there is no delay, then this narrows the range of masses where the ultralight boson could exist.
The team from MIT’s LIGO lab went to look for eligible black holes to test this hypothesis. LIGO, the laser interferometer’s gravitational wave observatory, is able to listen to gravitational waves propagating from distant sources such as boreholes in black holes. The team reviewed all 45 black hole binaries identified by LIGO and its accompanying project, Virgo. They reset two, known as GW190412 and GW190517.
It has been established that both objects rotate at the maximum speed, as predicted by established physics. This means that the ultralight boson cannot exist between 1 × 10 ^ -13 and 2 × 10 ^ -11 electron volts. Otherwise, the ultralight bosons would begin to gather around the black holes and siphon about half of their rotational energy. No sluggish black holes, no ultra-light bosons.
This does not mean that the ultralight boson is a fantasy. This simply means that it does not exist in this mass range. Past experiments have been able to exclude particles in small particles from space, but this is a huge part that researchers may be able to back down in their search for dark matter. Of course, other teams will have to confirm the finding. This work also shows that tools such as LIGO can be useful in the search for exotic particles.