Donovan walked to the reader, despite the missions of Mercury, Gemini and Apollo, each more dangerous and daring than the latter. Donovan knows how to tell a gripping story. With every start or failure, NASA's engineers, managers and astronauts traveled the big experiment, which was a human space flight a little longer. First they had to learn how human beings would even react to space. They then learned how to meet and secure two ships in orbit. The next lessons were how to leave Earth's orbit, sail around the moon, and return to safety.
With each step, Donovan gives us a choice of stories about people on the border, such as how astronaut Baz Aldrin runs a campaign to be the one who takes these famous people. first steps. NASA, however, supports the symbolism of an astronaut who is not in the army and makes a huge leap for humanity. So, says Donovan, this is Neil Armstrong, a civilian pilot-test who nodded. According to him, Aldrin, who describes Donovan as "a loner who participates in team sports," has accepted the decision with grace.
If you're interested in the way the United States started an incredible mission to get people to get on the moon when she could barely get out of the rocket, then Douglas Brinkley American Moonshot: John Kennedy and The Great Space Race may have been read for you. The subtitle of the book reveals everything you need to know about its focus. Part of Kennedy's biography, part of the history of political space, Brinkley's book clearly shows that the launch of the Apollo program is linked to the victory over the Russians. As Brinkley's book demonstrated, the president who had the greatest impact on space exploration was, in his own opinion, "not that in space." However, the American Moonshot shows that Kennedy is a brave and shrewd politician who has realized that placing Apollo in motion means jumping off the significant capacity of the Russians in space around 1961. By placing the moon as the goal of America Kennedy threw a glove whose effects would thrive far beyond its political origins from the Cold War.
Understanding these consequences and putting their story in context falls on Charles Fishman in A giant leap: The impossible mission that came to the moon. While Fishman is interested in the origin of the space race and the problem-solving mechanics that took us there, he is just as concerned about the ways Apollo has transformed us. In his words, the race to the Moon was "the largest civilian project ever taken, not only because of the Manhattan project, but also the Panama Canal and the Transcontinental Railroad." Thus Fishman wants us to see Apollo as part of a social revolution as deep as the rest of the 60s.
To begin with, the scale of what NASA was supposed to do and do in technology management was a sort of revolution. Fishman documents that in the early 1960s, when Russia first made satellites and people into orbit, it is not clear that democracies have the ability to arrange the only focus needed to develop a space program. But by 1968, NASA could be considered the "# 4 organization in the country with regard to employees, to any company except GM, Ford and GE," Fishman said. To work so successfully on this scale and at the sharpest and most irreconcilable end of technology was its own revolution that established the American forms of democracy and capitalism.
Fishman, however, Apollo's most important and least understood success lay in the digital field. A giant leap spends considerable and well-used time, demonstrating NASA's role in the birth of digital technologies that are now ubiquitous. When the racing to the moon began, the "integrated circuits" – ie. computer chips – were insecure technology. But NASA saw that they would be essential for their need for "real-time" calculations, where machine responses would have to follow just seconds after the questions were asked. According to Fishhog, NASA has ruled this technology by buying 60% of all ICs in 1963. More importantly, NASA's stringent requirements have resulted in 100% reliability, meaning that they can fly with lunar devices and ultimately make calculations that make GPS on your phone so accurate.
Fishman finishes his book with extensive mediation about what this civil project, conducted in full light of public transparency (Russia did not show anything about its release until it was over), meant for the world. He concludes that it is important for the United States to reach the moon – not the totalitarian system presented by the USSR – quoting Neil de Gras Tyson: "No other human research doctrine has put a plaque with the inscription," We are coming with peace for all mankind. "
With its vision, reach, and the achievement of new relationships between people and technology, Apollo transforms the world. As Fishman points out, Apollo is in every respect "victory and success". This is a lesson we would all do well if we remember half a century later. Adam Frank is Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Rochester and author of Starlight: the Alien Worlds and the Destiny of the Earth . You can find more of Adam here: @ adamfrank4 .