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Genetically modified chicken "medicinal medicines"



  Genetically modified chickens at the Roslin Institute

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New Generations of Genetically Modified Chickens Are Grown in the Research Center

Researchers at the University of Edinburgh at the Roslin Institute are genetically modified chickens to produce human proteins in their eggs.

They hope that one day the project will lead to life-saving drugs that are much cheaper to manufacture. The team modifies the genomes of chickens, so their eggs contain large amounts of high-quality protein. Only three eggs contain a clinically meaningful dose, according to scientists.

Initially, the proteins will be used in the studies, but laboratory tests have already found that they work at least as well as equivalent drugs. Protein-based therapies such as Herceptin and Avastin can be effective when traditional medicines fail but are very expensive.

The new research ̵

1; a collaboration between the Institute and Roslin Technologies at the university – promises a far cheaper production process.

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is expected to lay the eggs in a normal way.

We meet tomorrow's doctors in a safe facility at the Institute. Dozens of transgenic chickens are kept in rows of spacious pens. Their work is clear enough: to put 300 eggs a year. There are also loops here, something surprising for someone like me.

Their purpose is twofold. Chickens will not lie if there is no cock in the vicinity. Plus, men have to make more transgenic chickens.

These creatures are not clones. New generations of protein manufacturers are produced in a conventional, biological way.

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Professor Helen Sang said he could produce a large number of chickens for a short time when required

Professor Helen Sang of the Institute says it's a cost-effective way to increase production:

"If you want more eggs, you just need more birds."

"That's why in this pen we have a cock – and it can produce terribly many children for a short time."

In a laboratory, far from the cacophony of chicken bread, Dr Lisa Herron of Roslin Technologies produces a tray of brown eggs that will be decorate every breakfast table

Lissa Heron discards the egg yolk and uses the protein that is in the white.

But these will never get into the food chain. "Originally it's pretty old-fashioned," she says.

"We just break the egg, and I've become quite skilled in egg cracking over the years."

The golden yolk is set aside. This is an egg protein that contains the treasure: large amounts of medically important proteins. [19659905] "These proteins are really, really expensive to produce," she says, "because you can not just synthesize them in a chemical lab."

"You need a living system to produce them because the proteins are very large molecules, very complex and they need the whole machine of the cell to make them and fold properly. "

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Chickens can produce two kinds of proteins in their eggs
So far, chickens have been genetically engineered to produce two types of protein. One is macrophage-CSF. It develops as a therapy that stimulates the repair of injured tissues.

It is produced in human and pork versions. The other is called Interferon alfa-2A. "This is human protein that is natural in our body – it is expressed as part of our immune system," says Dr. Herron. [19659905] "It is a protein that is used in the clinic today – or it has been for a long time – for the treatment of hepatitis and some

Veterinary Medicine

As with all promising treatments, there is some warning that can take decades of further research and testing before the breakthrough becomes a drug. "orphan" diseases can be quickly tracked – and animal medicines are coming to market even faster. The new market in the veterinary sector. Dr. Herron knows how effective protein therapies can be: she has an existing medicine for an inflammatory bowel disease.

"It's a pretty amazing thing," she says. Friday when I was probably the whole intestine will be removed, Monday I will go home.

"This is a pretty impressive kind of thing we can do with some of these drugs." So we hope we can get them out and cure some of these really difficult diseases. "

chickens are expected to produce about 300 eggs a year

The team is confident it can expand the range of proteins that chickens can put. The technique used to introduce the new genes into chicken DNA uses lentivirus to deliver payload. It has been established for a long time, but it involves sample and error before the genes find the desired goal.

The new CRISPR / Cas method is expected to allow much more accurate editing. Researchers received strategic funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and published their findings in BMC Biotechnology. The chickens themselves are unaffected by the presence of human proteins in their systems.

Living in conditions superior to those of battery hens, they just keep wearing eggs as usual. EU regulations against GM organisms in the food chain mean that neither they nor their eggs will be on your plate.

But they can be pioneers in producing better and cheaper medicines.

Cheaper because they literally work for chicken food.


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