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Invasive new species are here to stay



  Monster tumbleweed: Invasive new species are here to stay
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<p>  A new kind of giant rollover, once predicted to disappear, is not only here to stay – it is likely to expand its territory.</p>
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The species, Salsola ryanii is significantly larger than any of its parent plants, which can grow up to 6 feet tall. A new study by UC Riverside supports the theory that the new bladder grows more vigorously because it is a hybrid with its parent's pair of chromosome pairs.

The findings of the study are described in detail in a new document published in the proceedings of the University of Oxford journal AoB Plants .

" Salsola ryanii is a hideous species that replaces other nasty species of molluscs in the US," says study co-author Norman Elstrand, an excellent professor of UCR genetics, "It's healthier than earlier versions and now we know why. ”

Humans are diploid organisms, with one set of chromosomes donated by the mother and one set from the father. Sometimes the mother's egg contains two sets of chromosomes, not just one that is intended to transmit. If this egg is fertilized, the offspring will be triploid, with three groups of chromosomes. Most people do not survive from this.

Plants with close enough parents to mate may produce triploid progeny that survive but are unable to reproduce. However, a hybrid plant that manages to take two copies from the mother and two from the father will be fertile. Some species may have more than four groups of chromosomes. They may even have hexaploidy with six groups of chromosomes.

Scientists have long suggested that there must be some evolutionary advantage to polyploidy, the term for hybrids that have multiple sets of chromosomes, since this creates some immediate difficulties for new hybrids.

"Usually, when something is new and it's one of a kind, it's a drawback. There's no one like you to mate," said study co-author Shana Wells, a graduate student at Ellstrand Laboratory who conducted the study as part of from her doctor. research. She is now a doctoral student at Chapman University.

  Monster bubble: Invasive new species are here to stay
Study co-author Shana Wells found this species of mollusks in Riverside, California, and placed it in the bed of her pickup truck. Credit: UC Riverside

The advantage of having multiple groups of chromosomes according to the study is that the hybrid plant grows more vigorously than each of its parents. This is supposed to be because polyploidy is so common in plants. However, it has not been proven experimentally so far.

Polyploidy is associated with our favorite cultures; the peanuts in question have four groups of chromosomes, and the wheat we eat has six.

Although crushers are often seen as symbols of the old West in America, they are also invasive plants that cause road accidents, damage agricultural activities, and cause millions of property damage each year. Last year they buried the desert town of Victorville, California, which accumulates the second story of some homes.

Currently, Salsola ryanii has a relatively small but expanding geographical scope. As the new study found it to be even more vigorous than its invasive ancestors in 48 states, Wales said it was likely to continue expanding. In addition, Wales said climate change could increase absorption into its territory.

Although this dry grass is annual, it tends to grow in late winter.

"It's one of the only things that is still green at the end of summer," Wells said. "They can be well located to take advantage of summer rains if climate change makes these more widespread. . "

Given its potential for damage, the available knowledge of Salsola ryanii may be important in helping to suppress it, and Elstrand believes that it must happen before it is absorbed.

" An ounce of prevention is a pound of cure, "he said.


New species of tendons are rapidly expanding


More information:
Shana Welles et al., Evolution of increased vigor associated with allopolyploidization in the newly invasive Salsolaryanii species, AoB PLANTS (2019). Doi: 10.1093 / aobpla / plz039

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University of California – Riverside

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Monster tumbleweed: Invasive new species are here to stay (2019, August 26)
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