About 80 graves are defiled at a Jewish cemetery in eastern France, local authorities said.
The damage was detected on Tuesday before national marches against the rise in anti-Semitic attacks.
President Emanuel Macron condemned anti-Semitic abuses after being targeted at a prominent intellectual.
The police stepped in to defend philosopher Alain Finkilkraut after being bombarded with insults and anti-Jewish mockery by a group of protesters "yellow vests" in Paris at the weekend.
- Anti-Semitism under the Yellow Vests? [1
Interior Minister Christoph Kastaner warned that anti-Semitism "spreads as poison" in the country
These include post boxes showing a portrait of Holocaust survivors , which were destroyed by swastikas.
Jewish groups also warn that rising extreme right in Europe promotes anti-Semitism and hatred towards other minorities
Germany's crime figures published last week revealed that anti-Semitic crimes have risen 10% over the past year – including a 60% increase in physical attacks. both the extreme right and the Islamists.
- Anti-Semitic crimes "up to 10%" in Germany