Obesity is still increasing in most countries and is an important risk factor for poor health and mortality. The current approach to the prevention of obesity fails despite many partial efforts, recommendations and calls for action. This committee, following two series Lancet on obesity, looks at obesity in a much wider context of general social and political drivers of malnutrition in all its forms and climate change. The Commission calls for a radical rethinking of business models, food systems, civil society participation and national and international governance to address the global syndrome of obesity, malnutrition and climate change. The holistic effort to reorient human systems to achieving better human and planetary health is our most important and urgent challenge.