Life in the cosmos puts the protection of the body of anxiety
United States. astronaut Scott Kelly, a member of the crew of the International Space Station, has placed a safety glass with his brother Mark Kelley, also an astronaut, after a press conference at the Russian cosmodrome Baikonur, Kazakhstan
Life in space for nearly a year has had interesting effects on American astronaut Scott Kelly.
Scientists have found signs of increased activity in their immune system, the body's natural defense against disease. Life in space also changed the activity of some of Kelly's genes compared to those of his identical twin who remained on Earth.
Scientists report their findings at a conference earlier this month. But they admit they still do not know whether the changes are good or bad.
The findings are part of a larger, special survey of twins from NASA, the US government's space agency. The study raises new questions for doctors, as agency officials plan to send people to the planet Mars.
Kelly's tests and his genetically identical brother enabled scientists to never study details of human biology. They are capable of exploring how the astronaut's genes are switched on and off in space differently from Earth's.
An unexpected change announced at the recent meeting of the American Association for Progress in Science: Kelly's immune system is hyperactivated .
Genetic Christopher Mason helped to conduct the study. Mason is with Weill Cornell Medicine, Medical University of Cornell University, New York. He told the Associated Press that now doctors are looking for this unusual condition with other astronauts.
"It's as if the body reacts to this alien environment like you if some mysterious organism is inside you," said Mason astronaut Scott Kelley, crew of the International Space Station, puts a safety glass with his brother Mark Kelley, also an astronaut, after a press conference at the Russian cosmodrome Baikonur, Kazakhstan, "src =" https://gdb.voanews.com/BC785C58-B08F-4375-832E-8DECD8DC81
Health effects of space exploration
] Since the beginning of space exploration, NASA has explored its impact on astronaut bodies. One of the effects is the loss of bone tissue resulting from a low gravitational environment over a prolonged period of time. As a result, astronauts are now required to perform physical exercise during long space flights
Astronauts are usually in space for about six months at a time. Kelly, who lived at the International Space Station, spent 340 days in space and recorded a record in the United States.
He noted congestion and headaches, trouble, attention, and stomach problems.
But this study was a glance at the molecular level, with former astronaut Mark Kelly, Scott's twin brother, on the ground. By comparison, a number of genes related to the immune system have become hyperactive, Charles Mason said. This is not a change in DNA a carrier of genetic information, and in so-called "gene expression". This term is used to describe how genes turn off and increase or decrease protein production. Mason also noted an increase in the blood flow of another marker that prepares the immune system. But at the same time, Kelly's blood shows less another type of cell, which is early protection against viruses. New discoveries
It is no surprise that gene activity will change in space – it changes in response to any conditions.
The good news is that everything came back to normal shortly after Kelly returned to Earth in March 2016. However, these immune-related genes "seem to have this memory or need of even six months later, added Mason.
Craig Kundroth heads NASA's cosmic life and research. He seemed pleased with the findings.
"There are no big new warning signs. We see changes that were not mandatory but it is unclear whether these changes are important, Kundroth notes.
Of the four Russians living in space for more than a year, NASA already knew that it is possible for people to spend a lot of time away from Earth, says Kundroth. He added, "We are also striving for more than possible. We want our astronauts to do more than simply survive. "
In the end, the double study gives NASA a list of things to look out for in the future space missions to see if other astronauts react in the same way, astronauts of future flights will be able to do some of these tests in space instead of freezing blood and other materials for scientists at home, Mason said.
A human mission on Mars, which NASA hopes to launch in the 2030s, will take 30 months, including surface weather, Kundrot said.
Radiation is a major problem. The trip will expose astronauts to radiation levels higher than NASA's own safety margins. That's "a little more," he said.
On Earth and even on the space station, the Earth's magnetic field protects astronauts from high levels of radiation. There would be no such protections on the road to Mars and vice versa, but special structures could help them on the planet, Kundrot said.
I'm Anna Matteo.
I'm Pete Musto.
Lauran Neergaard and Seth Borenstein reported this story to the Associated Press. Pete Musto adapted it for VOA. George Rost was an editor.
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