The increased intake of red meat – especially red meat – is associated with an increased risk of death for 8 years, according to results published today at BMJ .
The results also suggest that replacing red meat with healthier alternatives such as fish, whole grains or vegetables can reduce the risk of death. This long-term study provides additional evidence that reducing the intake of red meat while eating other protein foods or more whole grains and vegetables can reduce In order to improve both human health and environmental sustainability, it is important to adopt a Mediterranean style or other diet that highlights healthy plant foods, "said senior author Fran Hu, Ph.D., a professor of nutrition and epidemiology and chair of the Department of Nutrition in Harvard, TX Chan Public Health School
Red meat, especially processed meat, contains saturated fats, high levels of sodium, preservatives and potential carcinogens that can contribute to health problems. with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.Red red meat, such as hot dog and bacon, is associated with an even greater number of health problems and an increased risk of death
looking at the relationship between the pro consumption of red meat and death. or how alternative food choices can affect this risk.
Therefore, Dr. Jan Jeng, of the Department of Cardiology, the State Key Genetics Laboratory, the School of Life Sciences and Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, and colleagues analyzed data from two prospective cohort studies in the United States : Health Survey of Nurses (53,553 women) and follow-up Survey of Healthcare Professionals (27,91
Researchers analyzed data collected between 1986 and 2010. Using validated feed frequency questionnaires at the beginning and every 4 years, the participants themselves reported how often in the last year have eaten a standard portion of each food. Researchers categorize participants in five categories based on changes in consumption of red meat (increased, reduced or relatively neutral). During the study, 14,019 participants died, mainly from cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. The results show that the increased consumption of red meat for 8 years is associated with significantly higher mortality over the next 8 years for both women and men compared to the lack of change in consumption of red meat ( P for a tendency <.05). After adjusting for age, race, smoking, alcohol consumption and several other factors including red meat consumption, researchers found that increasing total red meat consumption to 3.5 servings per week for 8 years is (risk ratio [HR] 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.17). The risk of death is a 10% higher risk of death than a change in consumption of red meat. they distinguished red and unprocessed red meat, they have found a similar trend, with the risk associated with processed meat being higher than that for unprocessed meat. In particular, the increased consumption of processed red meat to 3.5 servings per week is associated with a 13% higher risk of death (HR, 1.13, 95% CI, 1.04 – 1.23), while the same increase in unprocessed consumption of red meat is associated with a 9% increased risk of death (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.17)
The results are similar regardless of age, physical activity level, diet quality, smoking and consumption alcohol. The results are also similar to 4- and 12-year changes in consumption
Reducing the total consumption of red meat by 1 to 3.5 servings per week is not associated with a risk of death. However, the risk of death is significantly lower when consumption of red meat decreases in favor of healthier options.
For example, the risk of death has decreased by 17% when a portion of red meat per day is replaced by one portion per day fish (HR, 0.83, 95% CI, 0.76-0.91). Other healthy alternatives where the risk of death has decreased include nuts (HR, 0.81, 95% CI, 0.79-0.84), whole grains (HR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.83 (HR, 0.90, 95% CI, 0.87-0.93), dairy products (HR, 0.92; 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99), eggs (HR, 0.92, 95% CI, 0.89-0.96), and legumes (HR, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.90-0.99).
The authors noted several limitations. The study has an observational design and can not prove that consumption of red meat leads to an increased risk of death, but only two are linked. Most participants were white health professionals with a relatively high socio-economic status; therefore, the results can not be summed up for different groups.
The study is funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Boston Research Center for Obesity in Nutrition.
One or more authors report support and / or fees from one or more of the following: Boston Nutrition Obesity Study, California Walnut Commission, Metabolism, Standard Process, Shanghai Higher Education Institutions and / or the American Diabetes Association. BMJ . Posted online 12 June 2019 Full text
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