Several instruments and spacecraft from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, observe Hurricane Dorian, capturing various types of storm data.
Infrared image of Hurricane Dorian, as seen by the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite at 1:30 PM EDT (10:30 a.m. PDT) on August 29, 2019. The large purple areas are cold clouds that are carried high into the atmosphere by deep thunderstorms. Blue and green show warmer areas with less rain clouds, while orange and red represent mostly cloudless air. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech
NASA's atmospheric infrared sound (AIRS) aboard the Aqua satellite senses infrared and microwave radiation from Earth. Information is used to map atmospheric phenomena such as temperature, humidity and the amount and height of clouds. In Dorian's AIRS photos taken in the afternoon (local time) on August 29, 201
Hurricane Dorian off the coast of Puerto Rico, as seen by the small TEMPEST-D satellite on August 28, 2019 (local time). The colors in the image reveal heavy rain and moisture inside the storm. The least intense rainfall areas are shown in green and the most intense are yellow and pink. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech
In the second image, TEMPEST-D, a weather-observing satellite with the size of a cereal box, captures images of Hurricane Dorian off the coast of Puerto Rico in the early morning hours (local time) on August 28, 2019. At an intersection 250 miles (400 kilometers) above the storm, CubeSat uses its miniaturized radio wave instrument to see through the clouds, revealing areas of heavy rain and humidity that pull into the storm. Greens indicate humidity, a spiral in the center of the storm, and yellow to pink colors correspond to the most intense rainfall. TEMPEST-D – short for a temporary experiment to demonstrate storms and tropical systems – is an experiment in shrinking meteorological satellites to a size that makes them cheap enough to produce in bulk. The goal is to eventually cover the storm in real time with very small satellites that can track storms around the world.
NASA's CloudSat satellite provided 3D animation after passing over Dorian, still a tropical storm at the time, near Puerto Rico. CloudSat uses advanced cloud-profiled radar that cuts through clouds, allowing us to see their height, their different layers, and the areas where heavier rain bands are in the storm system. The animation shows Dorian when he had maximum sustained winds of 52 mph (84 km / h) with cloud peaks extending about 9 miles (15 kilometers) into the atmosphere. The colors represent the size of water or ice droplets inside the storm: Deep red and pink mean larger droplets with areas of moderate to heavy rainfall.
NASA collects data from space, air, land, and sea to enhance our understanding of our home planet, improve our lives, and protect our future.
AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sound Unit (AMSU), provides a 3D look at Earth's weather and climate. Launched in Earth orbit in 2002, the AIRS and AMSU instruments are managed by JPL under a contract with NASA. TEMPEST-D is a technology demonstration mission led by the University of Colorado at JPL in partnership with Blue Canyon Technologies and Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. The mission is sponsored by NASA's Earth Ventures program and managed by the Earth Science Office. The radiometer is created by JPL and uses a high frequency microwave amplifier developed by Northrop Grumman. CloudSat is also managed by JPL, which developed the radar tool, with hardware contributions from the Canadian Space Agency. Colorado State University provides scientific leadership and the processing and dissemination of scientific data.
The JPL is operated by Caltech in Pasadena for NASA.
More information about these missions is available here:
https: //www.jpl .nasa.gov / cubesat / missions / storm-d. php
More information about the NASA Disaster Program is available here:
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA