NASA hopes to have humans on Mars before 2040, when space exploration reaches new and incredible levels. But long-distance space travel comes with a unique set of health issues. Dr. Pawelczyk, who spent nearly 16 days at Spacelab, revealed NASA's biggest challenges for the manned Mars mission. And he claims there are three things NASA needs to look at.
NASA Mars Mission: The US-based space agency must overcome three key obstacles to reach Mars
58-year-old Dr. Paw believes that some people are far from reaching the Red Planet because of their extreme distances and inhospitable conditions.
The short answer to the question of whether humans can survive on the trip and live, Mars is "probably"
He told Express.co.uk: "The short answer to the question of whether humans can survive the journey to and live on Mars is "likely" – the question is how successful they will do it.
"We see some great changes in human biology – big enough that we would like to mitigate them, at least in part.
"And we're not sure we have strategies that still exist. "
NASA astronaut revealed the extent of the problems f of the physiological, biological and even psychological.
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"The moon has less than one-sixth of Earth's gravity, while Mars has three-eighths of Earth's gravity.
"What happens to biology during this time is largely unknown in these partial gr
" We can fully predict that there will be bone and muscle loss, not unlike what you would see with a person who has been confined in bed for many months or even years.
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"These are systems that are reversible to a certain point, but are irreversible in nature "
" Obviously we would never want to get to the point where they become irreversible. And that's a challenge.
NASA astronaut Dr. Pavelchik, who has been aboard the NASA STS-90 space shuttle since 1998, also explained the biological obstacles involved in each Mars mission.
He said: "The Earth's magnetic screens on Earth us from events of galactic solar radiation and solar particles.
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"Mars lacks this capability – it is dead planet in this regard.
"Those who migrate to Mars and while on Mars will experience high-energy particles transporting cells into our bodies, which we find here only on Earth with nuclear explosions.
"We estimate that every cell in a human being can be transported at least once on the way to Mars.
"When these large particles are things like DNA, it's really quite destructive, and we see that our DNA repair mechanisms are unable to continue.
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"As a result, we see larger incidences of solid tumors, we also see oxidative stress related to things like accelerated cardiac- vascular disease and potentially even affecting cognitive function.
The problems associated with every manned Mars mission are not limited to physical ones, he explains.
He added: "Then the idea is to imagine that you are a man standing on Mars.  James_A_Pawelczyk "title =" James_A_Pawelczyk "data-w =" 590 "data-h =" 694 "/>
NASA News: Dr. James Pavelchyk spent nearly 16 days in space
" What would this degree of physical isolation mean?
"You can't call home to talk to your family and friends, because when you ask a question, it will take 22 minutes to get home and 22 minutes to get an answer.
" It'll be pretty boring conversation. "