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New quantum structures in supercooled helium can reflect the early days of the universe



Introducing spike vectors of liquid helium as they form half the quantum vortices. Sincerely: Ella Maru Studios

For the first time, researchers have documented the long-predicted appearance of "strings bound" in the superfluid helium-3. The existence of such an object, initially predicted by cosmology theorists, can help explain how the universe cools down after the Big Bang. With the newly discovered ability to recreate these structures in the lab, Earth-based scientists finally have a way to explore some of the possible scenarios that could happen more closely in the early universe.


The findings, which will be published on January 1

6 in Nature Communications came after two consecutive phase transitions for symmetry at Aalto University's Low Temperature Laboratory. to absolute zero, where all other materials freeze solid. Not only does helium remain fluid at cryogenic temperatures, but also becomes superfluid at a low enough temperature. The superfluid material has essentially zero viscosity, which means it has to flow indefinitely without loss of energy. whirlpools in superfluid where the amount of helium fluid is strictly controlled by the rules of quantum physics. survive, as the helium-3 sample is cooled down to half a millivolt – instead a non-logical wall appears, "says Jerek Mackinen, lead author of the study and Ph.D. student at Aalto University

Although they are not physical walls that would blocked the flow, the netlogical walls change the magnetic properties of the helium Researchers have been able to detect the changes using nuclear magnetic resonance

During the first few microseconds after the Big Bang, some cosmologists believe that the whole universe has experienced symmetric phase The theory is that quantum fluctuations or topological defects, such as the walls of the domains and the quantum vortices, in the ultra-condensed universe have been frozen at the site of the expansion of the universe, with a superfluid inside a nano-structured volume as it is cooled. time these frozen fluctuations have become the galaxies we see and live today.The ability to create these objects in the lab can allow us to understand more about the universe and why it was formed the way it was.

As a bonus, the structure of these hurricane defects created in Makinen's lab also provides a potential model for exploring topological quantum computations.

"While liquid helium-3 would be too labor-intensive and costly to support as a working computer, it gives us a working model to study phenomena that can be used in

Professor Honorary Gregory Vovilik, co-author of the new initially predicted semi-quantum vortices with VP Mineev in the 1970s, and for the first time they were observed in a helium superfluid at the Aalto Low Temperature Laboratory in 2016.


See also:
Researchers have found subtle semi-quantum vortices in superfluid

More Information:
J. T. Makinen et al., Semi-quantum vortices and walls limited by strands in the polar-deformed phases of topological holodegability 3He, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-018-08204-8

Journal Title:
Nature Communications

Submitted by:
Aalto University


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