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Physicists see a new difference between matter and antimatter



  A person in a LHCb detector at CERN at his opening in 2018

The LHCb experiment has given physicists a new way to explore the universe imbalance matter-antimatter.

One experiment in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, has seen a new way in which matter and antimatter behave differently.

Physicists have observed the behavior that scientists have predicted and which fits into the standard particle physics model in the degradation of particles called D-mesons in the LHCb experiment at CERN, the Particle Physics Laboratory in Europe near Geneva, Switzerland . 1

9659006] The discovery reveals a small mechanism that contributes to the fact that there is more matter in the universe than antimatter – particles with a mirror image with opposite charge. Understanding imbalance is one of the most urgent mysteries in physics because it explains why matter exists. If matter and antimatter existed in equal parts in the early universe, they would destroy each other in order to leave nothing but radiation. The effect of the behavior of the D-Meson is too small to fully explain the dominance of matter, but it represents a new way to unravel the problem, says Olya Igonkina, a particle physicist at the National Institute for nuclear and nuclear technologies. High Energy Physics in Amsterdam, working on the CERN experiment at ATLAS. The discovery provides physicists with an unprecedented place to look for deviations from the standard model – which eventually can explain the mismatch, she says.

In the short term, the find will help the theorists understand the mechanism better. behind this behavior in D-mesons and similar particles, which is the only laboratory example that nature "chooses" matter over the antimatter that physicists have been able to confirm.

The discovery was welcomed with applause and champagne when LHCb's cooperation was presented on 21 March at the Rencontres de Moriond conference in La Thuile, Italy.

A fascinating discovery

Physicists have long known that some interactions between particles create differences in the behavior of particle matter and their antimatteric counterparts. This phenomenon, which creates an imbalance of matter-antimatter, is known as a CP violation. Since the 1960s, physicists have detected a CP violation in particles called canons and in mesons composed of two quartz particles – observations that contributed to Nobel prize-winning work in 1980 and 2008

so far the violation CP has never been observed in any particle that includes the taste of quark's "charm", such as D-mazone. "The observation that matter and antimatter expect the mesons to behave differently provides measurement of textbooks," said Tara Shires, a particle physicist at the University of Liverpool, UK, and a member of the LHCb team. Physicists know, however, that the dominance of matter can not be explained solely by the behavior of quarks and antiquarians, and finding new types of CP violations remains one of the greatest challenges to particle physics.

The effect of D-mesons is so small that it is technically extremely difficult to measure, says Shears. From 2011 to 2018, sufficient particulate debris is accumulated to make the data sensitive to the slight imbalance. "It's really proof of the fantastic precision and sensitivity of LHCb's experiment, the ingenuity of physicists who analyze the data, and the ability of LHC to deliver huge samples that this is possible now," she says.

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