The puppy "pet wolf" belonging to an ancient Siberian man has given scientists a remarkable modern technological breakthrough.
14 The 300-year-old animal has been preserved by the permafrost of the region from prehistoric times.
This Pleistocene canid, suspected by scientists to have been tamed, gave up its RNA – ribonucleic acid – sequencing, something that has never been done so far back in time.
DNA encodes hard copy of genes and can survive for thousands of years if conditions are right.
But RNA is shorter, describing the working copy of a gene.
DNA analysis shows what kind of genes they looked like, while RNA explains which genes worked and which were silent.
The animal ̵
Its owners may have been ancient woolly mammoth hunters.
It was found in Tumat, Sakha, also known as Yakutia, four years ago, the second of two young animals of the same species.
Video shows the mud and dirt being washed away by a frozen puppy for thousands of years before the animal died in Yakutsk, the capital of the Russian republic of Saha, where mummified remains were found on the steep bank of the Sialakh River.
In the meantime, South Korean cloning guru Hwang Vuo-suk tried to retrieve cell samples to bring the species back to life, but to no avail.
Dr. Oliver Smith of the University of Copenhagen and his colleagues analyzed liver, cartilage, and muscle tissue of a prehistoric animal with greater success.
"Scientists have shown that RNA sequenced by the liver tissue of puppy Tumat is truly representative of animal RNA, with very liver-specific transcripts that match modern morphs from both wolves and dogs," reports "sci-news.com
" The canid transcript is the oldest RNA sequenced to date, surpassing the next oldest transcript of at least 13,000 years. "
Dr. Smith says," Ancient DNA researchers were previously reluctant to try to sequence ancient RNA because it is generally more unstable than DNA and more susceptible to enzymatic degradation.  "However, after our recent successes in sequencing ancient RNA from plant material, we speculated that a well-preserved animal copy frozen in permafrost could simply retain enough material for consistency.
" To our delight, we have found that we not only found RNA from different tissues, but in some the signal was so strong that we could distinguish the tissues in a way that makes biological sense. "
This Pleistocene ka a suspect suspected of being tamed by scientists has given up its RNA sequencing – ribonucleic acid – something that has never been done so far back in time
DNA encodes a hard copy of the genes and can survive for thousands of years if conditions are appropriate. But RNA is shorter, it details the working copy of a gene.
DNA analysis shows what kind of genes they looked like, while RNA explains which genes worked and which ones were silent.
He explained: "Knowing that RNA acts as a mediator between DNA and proteins, which are both more stable, it may be tempting to ask," So what? "
" But we believe that the future of ancient RNA has great potential.  "For example, many of the most clinically relevant viruses around today have RNA genomes and the RNA stage is often critical to understanding the intricacies and complexities of gene regulation.
"This may have consequences when discussing environmental stresses and strains. that drive evolution
The detailed findings are published in the journal PLOS Biology.
CAN WE RECOVER MOMATS?
Male woolly mammoths were about 12 feet (3.5 m) high, while the females were slightly smaller.  They had curved tusks up to 5 feet (5 m) long and their undergrowths boasted a coat of loose hair up to 3 feet (1 m) long.
Small ears and short tails prevented the loss of vital body heat. .
the trunks had two fingers at the end to help them pluck grass, twigs and other vegetation.
They derive their name from the Russian mammut, or earth mole, since the animals were thought to live underground and die in contact with light – explaining why they were always found dead and buried.
It was once thought that their bones belong to the missing races of giants.
The woolly mammoths and elephants of modernity are closely related, sharing 99.4 percent of their genes.
The two species took a separate evolutionary path six million years ago, at about the same time humans and chimpanzees went their own way.
Woolly mammoths coexist with early humans, who hunt them for food and use their bones and tusks for weapons and art.
The most widely used technique known as CRISPR / Cas9 allows scientists to create a hybrid animal of preserved fossil mammoth fossils and merge it with living elephant cells. Both species share 99.4 percent of their DNA
Mammoth extinction has become a viable prospect because of revolutionary gene editing techniques that allow precise selection and insertion of DNA from samples frozen for millennia in Siberian ice.
The most widely used technique known as CRISPR / Cas9 has transformed genetic engineering since it was first demonstrated in 2012.
The system allows manipulation of "strand and DNA" by DNA strands with an accuracy that has not been observed so far. .
Using this technique, scientists can cut and paste mammoth DNA stored in Asian elephants to create an elephant-mammoth hybrid.
Mammoths roam the ice tundra of Europe and North America for 140,000 years, disappearing at the end of the Pleistocene period, 10,000 years ago.
They are some of the best-understood prehistoric animals known in science because their remains are often not fossilized, but frozen and preserved.