The small West African state of Gambia has filed a lawsuit against the United Nations Supreme Court, which officially accuses Myanmar of Myanmar Rohinia.
It is filed with the International Court of Justice (ICJ), which usually settles disputes between countries.
Last year, the UN issued a terrifying report on violence in Myanmar, saying that military leaders should launch a trial for genocide.
The Government of Myanmar denies that its troops have committed such crimes.
Thousands of Rohingyas were killed and over 700,000 fled to neighboring Bangladesh during the country's Buddhist majority army in 201
An independent international fact-finding mission in Myanmar in August 2018 said that the army's tactics were "grossly disproportionate to the actual security threats" and that "military necessity would never justify the murder indiscriminately; the gang raped women, attacked children and burned entire villages."
Myanmar rejected the report. He has consistently said that his operations are directed against military or insurgent threats.
Last year, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court (ICC) – who typically investigate war crimes allegations as opposed to the ICJ – launched a preliminary investigation into Myanmar's alleged crimes against its Rohingya Muslim minority.
But the fact that Myanmar did not sign the ICC complicates the legal case there and no charges have been filed yet.
Why does Gambia file a complaint?
The Gambia brought an action before the ICJ – sometimes known as the World Court – in The Hague on Monday.
The Muslim-majority country also has the support of the 57-member Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and a team of international lawyers.
Both he and Myanmar signed the 1948 Genocide Convention, committing them to preventing and punishing the crime of genocide.
In its submission, Gambia asked the court to apply an injunction to ensure that Myanmar immediately "stopped the atrocities". and genocide against his own Rohingya people. "
Abubakar M Tambadou, Gambia's Attorney-General and Minister of Justice, made efforts. He previously worked at the Rwanda International Criminal Tribunal for the 1994 Genocide.
Mr Tambadou told the BBC last month that he was motivated to act after hearing stories of brutal killings, rapes and torture of survivors while visiting a refugee camp in Rohinj, Bangladesh.
Who are the Rohingyas?
The Rohingyas are a Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar but have their own language and culture. They live mainly in the state of Rakine, which borders Bangladesh.
Although they have lived in Myanmar for generations, they are not recognized as nationals or counted. They are often painted, including by government officials, as illegal immigrants and interlopers from Bangladesh.
On August 25, 2017, Rohingya fighters attacked dozens of police posts, killing several officers. Responding to clearing operations by security forces, entire villages were seen burned and civilians attacked, raped and killed, UN investigators said.
Hundreds of thousands fled to Bangladesh, joining many Rohingya camps, escaping camps, escaping early waves.
Attempts to repatriate Rohingya have so far failed – refugees cite a lack of accountability for the atrocities committed and uncertainty about their fate upon their return.
In October, the UN warned that there was a "serious risk of repeated genocide" against those still inside the country.
Earlier this year, the BBC found evidence that entire villages of Rohinja had been demolished and replaced by secure government facilities.