“The mission has 314 million miles of interplanetary space and seven minutes of terror to get safely to the surface of Mars,” said Lori Glaz, director of NASA’s Planetary Science Division. “When we see the landscape in Jezero Crater for the first time and really begin to realize the scientific award ahead of us, the fun really begins.”
The persistence and the Ingenuity helicopter are safely placed in a protective airbrush capsule. The descent stage, which will help the rover land, is also located in this airbrush, which is attached to the cruise stage or the mission spacecraft.
The cruise stage is shaped as a disk and solar powered. It will take more than 300 miles to reach Mars.
Although it is floating to Mars, Earth engineers will tell the spacecraft when to perform corrective maneuvers to keep it on the right path to Mars, as well as its target site. The ground team will also inspect the instruments and subsystems in the spacecraft.
About 45 days before landing on Mars, the spacecraft will enter the approach phase, with more adjustments to its trajectory.
During what we hope is a quiet trip to Mars, Perseverance teams will prepare and train when the rover lands on Mars. The scientific team will prepare the instructions it wants to send to the rover, as it uses its instruments on Mars.
Rover drivers will also work with a model of the rover on Earth to prepare for the journey of permanence across the surface of Martian.
This includes using the Earth’s Twin Perseverance to test hardware, drive it across Mars Yard at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and make sure automatic navigation algorithms work, said Heather Dwarfs, a robotic descent operation. and one of the rover drivers in JPL.
“Seven Minutes of Terror”
The one-way light time required for radio signals to travel from Earth to Mars is about 10.5 minutes, which means that the seven minutes needed for the spacecraft to land on Mars will occur without any help or intervention from NASA teams on Earth. .
NASA team members call this “seven minutes of terror.” They tell the spacecraft when to start EDL (entry, descent and landing), and the spacecraft takes over from there.
The spacecraft hits the top of the Martian atmosphere at 12,000 miles per hour and should slow to zero miles per hour seven minutes later when the rover lands softly on the surface.
About 10 minutes before entering the thin Martian atmosphere, the cruise phase is launched and the spacecraft prepares for a guided entrance, where small airbrush pushers help adjust its angle.
The spacecraft’s heat shield will withstand a peak heating of 2370 degrees Fahrenheit 75 seconds after entering the atmosphere.
Perseverance is focused on an ancient lake bed and river delta, 28 miles wide, the most challenging place ever for a NASA spacecraft landing on Mars. Instead of being flat and smooth, the small landing site is littered with sand dunes, steep cliffs, rocks and small craters.
The spacecraft has two upgrades – called Range Trigger and Terrain-Relaval Navigation – to navigate this difficult and dangerous object.
The Range Trigger will tell the 70.5-foot parachute when to deploy based on the spacecraft’s position 240 seconds after entering the atmosphere. After deploying the parachute, the heat shield will separate.
Terrain-relative navigation acts as a second brain for the rover, using cameras to take pictures of the ground, as it quickly approaches and determines the safest place to land. It can displace the landing site by up to 2,000 feet, according to NASA.
The hull and parachute are released after the heat shield is ejected when the spacecraft is 1.3 miles above the surface of Martian. Mars landing engines, which include eight retro rockets, will fire to slow the descent from 190 miles per hour to about 1.7 miles per hour.
Then comes the famous celestial crane maneuver, which landed on the rover Curiosity. The nylon cords will lower the rover 25 feet below the descent stage. Once the rover touches the surface of the Martian, the cords will come off and the descent phase will take off and land at a safe distance.
On the surface of Mars
Once the rover lands, Perseverance’s two-year mission will begin and it will go through a “check” period to make sure it is ready.
The rover will deploy its mast and antenna, depict its landing target, perform a “health check” on its instruments, test movement and “bend” its arm, and conduct a short test drive. Perseverance will also free your stomach, which provides a safe haven for the Ingenuity helicopter stored there during the cruise and landing.
The rover will also find a nice, flat surface to drop the Ingenuity helicopter so that it has a place to use as a helicopter for its potential five test fields over a 30-day period. This will happen within the first 50 to 90 soles or Martian days of the mission.
Once Ingenuity has settled to the surface, Perseverance will come to a safe place from a distance and use its cameras to monitor Ingenuity’s flight.
After these flights, Perseverance will begin to search for evidence of ancient life, study the climate and geology of Mars, and collect samples that will eventually be returned to Earth through planned future missions.