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Scientists say the material "Frozen Smoke" can make Mars fit for life



While Mars has not yet discovered life, people have long considered the possibility of one day living on the Red Planet. The problem with this idea is that Mars is experiencing extreme conditions that would make it impossible for people to survive.

Two of the most extreme conditions are very low temperatures and high levels of sunlight. Both make Mars currently unacceptable to humans, plants and other life forms.

Nevertheless, there are discussions about sending people to Mars, and some even offer human colonization on the planet in the future.

The US space agency NASA plans someday to put people on Mars. NASA's goal is first to bring people back to the moon by 2024. The agency then plans to perform several missions on Moon in preparation for sending astronauts to Mars in the 2030s.

  taken from NASA's curiosity rumor shows rocky land on the lower flank of Sharpe Mountain, a mountain on Mars.

This photo taken on 2 December 2016 by NASA's rosters shows a rocky terrain on the lower flank of Sharpe Mountain, a mountain on Mars.

A new study suggests a plan that can allow people not only to visit Mars, but also to live there. The study includes researchers from the American University of Harvard, the NASA JA and the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.

The study, published in Nature Astronomy explains how a material called aerogel can protect life on Mars. NASA describes the aerogel as "the lightest hard material known". Most aerogels are made of silicon dioxide, a substance found in glass. Sometimes it's called "frozen smoke" because of its gravity and cloud-like appearance.

The aerogel made with 99% air is extremely light. The material also allows the light to pass while blocking harmful ultraviolet radiation. Aerogel has also been used by NASA as an effective insulator to prevent the freezing of its vehicles from Mars.

  Scientists have tested these aerogel samples to see how they can be used as building materials on Mars. In experiments, both crushed and solid aerogel samples are able to raise the temperature to melt water ice - ideal for a Martian greenhouse.

Scientists have tested these aerogel samples to see how they can be used as building materials on Mars. In experiments, both crushed and solid aerogel samples are able to raise the temperature to melt water ice – ideal for a Martian greenhouse.

Researchers suggest placing shields with two to three centimeters. layer Aerogel in different areas above the surface of Mars.

Experiments include aerogel layer and lights used for Martian sunlight. Researchers reported that the temperature of the simulated Mars surface was raised to 65 degrees Celsius. This temperature would be enough to melt ice on Mars

The study suggests that a layer of aerogel in areas over Mars would allow enough light to reach the surface to allow photosynthesis. This is the process by which plants use energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into food.

If successful, this process can give people the ability to grow food on Mars. This would help reduce the need for supplies that require expensive equipment and fuel. The aerogel can also protect people from harmful ultraviolet radiation

Laura Kerber is a NASA JPL researcher. She helped lead the experiments. She said in a statement that after Earth Mars "is the most habitable planet in our solar system. She added, "But it remains a hostile world for many types of life." The aerogel can create "small islands of habitation" for humans and other living creatures, Kerber said.

Robin Wordsworth is Professor of Environmental Sciences and Engineering at Harvard University. He said the aerogel could provide a relatively easy solution to help Mars enjoy life. "Scattered on a large enough area, you will not need another technology or physics, you just need a layer of these things on the surface, and there will be constant liquid water beneath you," Wordsworth said.

can also be used to build living areas for living or solitary biosphere on Mars.

Researchers plan to make their experiments outside the lab and in places that have a Mars-like climate on Earth. Two possible areas include the Atacama desert in Chile or the dry valleys of Antarctica. Like Mars, these two places experience very low temperatures and extremely dry air.

I'm Brian Lynn.

Brian Lyn wrote this story about VOA Learning English based on NASA, Nature Astronomy, Harvard University and other online sources. Ashley Thompson, editor.

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Test – "Frozen Smoke" can make Mars Livable

  Quiz - The Material

]

n. an important task, usually involving travel

shield Part of equipment used as protection

Isolator n. material or coating that prevents the passage of electricity, heat or sound through a simulating [19599005] – v. creates conditions or processes similar to something that exists adj. used to describe a light that can not be seen, and which has shorter wavelengths of violet light adj. can live in

passive adj. does not work to affect or change the situation

support n. the process of preservation or continuation of something

biosphere n. part of the Earth's environment where life exists


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