In 1572, Danish astronomer Tycho Brahé was among those who noticed a new bright object in the constellation Cassiopeia. Adding fuel to the intellectual fire that Copernicus started, Tycho showed that this "new star" was far beyond the moon and that the universe beyond the sun and the planets could change.
Astronomers now know that the new star of Tycho was not new at all. Rather, it signals the death of a star in a supernova, an explosion so bright that it can eclipse light from an entire galaxy. This particular supernova is type Ia, which appears when a star of white dwarf pulls or fuses material with a nearby companion star until a fierce explosion is triggered. The white dwarf star is deleted by sending its debris into space.
As with many supernova remnants, the excess of Quiet, as it is known today (or briefly "Quiet,") shines brightly in X-ray light, because shock waves ̵
Chandra reveals an intriguing pattern of bright lumps and weaker areas in Tycho. What caused this knot of knots after this explosion? Did the explosion itself cause this clumsiness, or did it happen afterwards?
This latest image of Tycho by Chandra gives clues. To highlight the lumps in the image and the three-dimensional nature of Tycho, scientists chose two narrow ranges of X-ray energies to isolate material (silicon, colored in red) away from Earth and move toward us (also silicon, colored in blue). ). The other colors in the image (yellow, green, blue-green, orange and purple) show a wide range of different energies and elements and a mix of directions. In this new composite image, Chandra's X-ray data was combined with an optical image of the stars in the same field of view from the Digitized Sky study
By comparing the Chandra image of Tycho with two different computer simulations, researchers were able to test their ideas against real ones data. One of the simulations began with cumbersome debris debris. The other starts with smooth fragments of the explosion and then clumsiness is formed after the supernova remnant develops and small irregularities increase.
Statistical analysis using a technique that is sensitive to the number and size of clumps and holes in images. then used. Comparing the results for Chandra and simulated images, the scientists found that the remnant of Supernova Quiet strongly resembles a scenario in which clumps came from the explosion itself. Although scientists are not sure how, one possibility is that the star's explosion had multiple ignition points, with dynamite rods being driven simultaneously in different places.
Understanding the details of how these stars explode is important because it can improve the reliability of using Type Ia Supernovae as 'standard candles' – that is, objects with some inherent brightness that scientists can use to determine the distance your. This is very important for studying the expansion of the universe. These supernovae also spray elements such as iron and silicon, which are essential to life as we know it, in the next generation of stars and planets.
A document describing these results appeared in the July 10 and 2019 issue of The Astrophysical Journal and is available online. The authors are Toshiki Sato (RIKEN in Saitama, Japan, and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland), John (Jack) Hughes (University of Piscataway, NJ), Brian Williams, (Space Center) NASA Goddard), and Mikio Mori (Institute of Statistical Mathematics in Tokyo, Japan).
Another astronomy team, led by Gill Ferran of RIKEN in Saitama, Japan, has designed its own three-dimensional computer models of the supernova type Ia as it changes over time. Their work shows that initial asymmetries are required in a simulated supernova explosion, so that the model of the resulting supernova remnant resembles a Chandra image of Tycho at such an age. This conclusion is similar to that made by Sato and his team.
A report describing the results of Ferran et al. Appeared in the issue of The Astrophysical Journal on June 1, 2019 and is available online .
The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program. The X-ray Center of the Chandras Astrophysical Observatory controls scientific and flight operations from Cambridge, Massachusetts.