A vaccine that can "revolutionize" the treatment of tuberculosis has been discovered by researchers.
We hope the vaccine will provide long-term protection against the disease that kills 1.5 million people worldwide each year.
The highly contagious disease is caused by bacteria and the current vaccine, BCG jab, is not very effective.
Although initial tests have proven successful, the vaccine is still several years from licensing.
A team of researchers from all over the world discovered the vaccine, made up of proteins from bacteria that elicit an immune response, during a global lung summit in the southern Indian city of Hyderabad on Tuesday.  Is there enough global effort to fight tuberculosis?
It has already cleared the critical phase of clinical trials and has been tested on more than 3,500 adults in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia, researchers said.
Tuberculosis expert David Levinson told the BBC that the potential vaccine was "a real game changer".
"What is really remarkable is that it has been effective in adults who have already been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the cause of tuberculosis," he said.
"Since most people who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis do not become infected. TB, we believed that the infection provided some degree of protection. As a result, it is really exciting that the vaccine has been shown to improve this natural immunity. "
Dr. Levinson stated that the new vaccine had cleared a key" phase-in development and that it was intended to test both safety and provide an early indicator of efficacy. "
tested in additional populations and possibly larger trials, before it is licensed. Assuming the data is retained in other trials, which seems likely, this vaccine has the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis treatment. "
He believes that if everything goes well, the vaccine should reach humans. who most need it in 2028 or so.
Researchers claim that proving that the vaccine works often requires studies that are much larger than necessary for a viral disease, such as measles. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has been working on the tuberculosis vaccine for nearly 20 years.
About 10 million people have contracted tuberculosis in 2018, a number that has been relatively stable in recent years, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), while nearly one quarter of the world population has a latent tuberculosis infection.
This means that they carry the bacteria in an inactive form, are not ill and do not transmit the disease to other people. People with latent tuberculosis have a 5 to 10% lifetime risk of developing active tuberculosis.
Meanwhile, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) – a type of tuberculosis that does not respond to or is resistant to at least two of the first line of anti-tuberculosis drugs – continues to be a major public health threat.
Eight countries account for two-thirds of TB cases worldwide: India (27%), China (9%), Indonesia (8%), Philippines (6%), Pakistan (6%), Nigeria (4%) )), Bangladesh (4%) and South Africa (3%).
With just over one in four of all evaluated cases worldwide, India has the highest TB incidence in the world.
The country registers nearly 3 million new cases of tuberculosis annually, of which over 100,000 are multi-drug resistant, according to the WHO.
The disease also kills 400,000 Indians a year and costs the government about $ 24 billion ($ 18.68 billion) a year.
"We cannot eliminate tuberculosis globally unless we end it in India," said Jamhoih Toning, director of the cabinet of the International Union for Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Diseases in Delhi.
The Union is convening the 50th World Conference on Lung Health held in Hyderabad this week.
"The number of people with tuberculosis in India is decreasing and this is good news. But let's be honest – TB is still not falling fast enough in India, progress is still too slow to reach the targets. We need to step up the pace of treatment and prevention, "she said.
Facts about tuberculosis
- TB is a bacterial infection spreading by inhalation of small drops of cough or sneezing of an infected person
- It mainly affects the lungs, but can affect every part of the body, including the abdominal glands, bones and nervous system
- The most common symptoms of tuberculosis are persistent cough for more than three weeks, unexplained weight loss, fever and night sweats.
- TB is hard to grasp and have to spend takes many hours in close contact with a person with infectious tuberculosis to be at risk of infection
- TB can be fatal if left untreated – but can be cured if treated with the right antibiotics for six months
- The BCG vaccine offers protection against tuberculosis and is recommended for infants, children, and adults under 35 years of age who are at risk of contracting tuberculosis
- At risk are: children living in areas with high tuberculosis rates and people with close family members from countries with high tubes kulozi