Elson Musk from SpaceX can imagine a nuclear device acting as an artificial sun on Mars for its long-term terraforming plans, but NASA has finally disagreed with his plans and others for the planet so far. With that in mind, Harvard University researchers have conducted a study of the use of a silica aero gel to create regionally shaped parts of the planet. Their results have recently been published in Nature Astronomy.
NASA's message is clear: the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) required to warm enough Mars to provide the necessary atmospheric pressure for human survival is not present on the red planet. "The transformation of the inhospitable Martian environment into a place that astronauts could explore without sustaining life is not possible without technology far beyond today's capabilities," NASA concluded in a press release last year about turning our neighbor to the next Earth. "Our results show that Mars does not leave enough CO2 (carbon dioxide) to ensure significant warming of greenhouse gases if the gas is released into the atmosphere; Moreover, most of the gaseous carbon dioxide is not available and can not be easily mobilized. As a result, Terraforming on Mars is not possible with the help of modern technology. "
Harvard scientists who published a recent study instead suggested a way to bypass this problem by exchanging a planetary strategy for local transformation. By covering some areas of the Martian surface with a thin layer of silicagel, namely areas with large amounts of water ice, enough sunlight will warm up and combine with natural underground heating processes to create a potentially habitable environment.  "In particular, we demonstrate through experiments and modeling that under Martian environmental conditions, a layer of 2-3 cm thick silica aerogel will simultaneously transmit sufficiently visible light to photosynthesis, block dangerous hazardous radiation and raise the temperature below it for constantly above the melting point of the water without the need for any internal heat source, "is detailed in the study.