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The earliest example of merging galaxies



Mergers of galaxies are not particularly rare, but they are important events. Not only for participating galaxies, but also for scientists trying to gather how galaxies are developing. Astronomers using ALMA have now discovered the earliest example of a galaxy merger. The pair of conflicting galaxies is called B14-65666, a clumsy name, but scientifically useful. (We'll call it "object.") The object is 13 billion light-years in the constellation Sextans. This means that the light we see now has left the site 13 billion years ago, shortly after the beginning of the universe.

This is not the first time this object has been spotted. Previously, Hubble noticed this object, but Hubble looked like two separate objects, probably star clusters. But the Millennium / Submillimeter Array team, perhaps the most sensitive radio telescope in the world, has shown that the object is two merging galaxies 1

3 billion years ago.

The results of these new observations have been published. in publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan on June 18, 2019. The name of the article is "The Big Three Dragons": az = 7.15 The Lyman Break Galaxy was discovered in [OIII] 88 um, [CII] 158 um, and the ALMA powder continuum. "Leading author of the study is Takuya Hashimoto of Waseda University, Japan.

When Hubble looks at the subject, it is confined to the ultraviolet spectrum. With this constraint, the object looked like two star clusters, one in the northeast and one in the southwest. But when Hashimoto and his team used Alma's power to study the object, they saw something else: signaling fingerprints of chemical elements.

ALMA has seen the radio waves of carbon, oxygen, and dust in the object. Detecting these three signals is the key to unlocking the nature of the object.

The analysis showed that the object really had two parts, just as Hubble saw. But the signals from carbon, oxygen and dust added another layer of information about the site, thanks to ALMA. He showed that while the two spots are different, they form a single system. Each spot moves at different speeds, indicating that they are two mergers of galaxies.

The artist's impression of the merging galaxies B14-65666, located at 13 billion light-years. "With rich data from ALMA and HST, coupled with advanced data analysis, we can put the pieces to show that B14-65666 is a pair of merging galaxies in the earliest age of the universe," he explains. Hashimoto in a press release. "The discovery of three-component radio waves in such a remote object shows ALMA's high ability to explore the distant universe."

According to the study, the object is now the earliest known example of a merger of galaxies. Researchers also estimate the total mass of stars at B14-65666 as less than 10% of the mass of the Milky Way. This means that the object is in the earliest stages of its evolution. This makes sense because it is ancient.

Although the subject is young, he is much more active in star production than our own galaxy. ALMA observations have found high temperatures and brightness in the dust. The authors say this is probably the result of a very powerful ultraviolet radiation generated by the active formation of stars. This active star formation is another indicator of fusion of galaxies because collapsing galaxies undergo many gas compressions that cause starburst bursts. As the authors say in their article, "… we claim that B14-65666 is a galaxy with explosive stars caused by a great merger."

This is a composite image of the object B14-65666. Red is dust, oxygen is green, and carbon is blue. Whites are stars, as seen from the Hubble Space Telescope. Image Credit: ALMA (ESO / NAOJ / NRAO), NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Hashimoto and others. "Our next step is to look for nitrogen, another major chemical element and even the carbon monoxide molecule," said Akio Inoue, a professor at Waseda University and part of the research team. "Finally, we hope to observe circularity and the accumulation of elements and materials in the context of the formation and evolution of galaxies."

Galaxy mergers are an important part of the evolution of galaxies. Often a larger galaxy swallows less. Small galaxies can merge to form larger, though this is considered rare. Our own Milky Way has experienced mergers that have helped him reach his current huge size.

In an article from 2018, astronomers presented evidence based on a century of observations that show that the Milky Way contains a population of stars from another galaxy. About 10 billion years ago, another galaxy collided with our own, leaving behind a different star population in the galactic inner halo. The authors of this book claim that these stars are from a small galaxy that is approximately the size of the Little Magellanic Cloud. About 4.5 billion years ago, the Milky Way will collide with the Andromeda galaxy and will merge. The resulting galaxy will probably be called Milkdromeda. And right now the Milky Way merges with, or eats, the much smaller ghost ghost called Antlia 2 (Ant 2). The authors of the study think that, like our Milky Way, there may be more mergers in the future (past) of objects that have so far been unnoticed. In the article they say, "Although our current data does not show companion objects around B14-65666, deeper deeper ALMA data could reveal accompanying galaxies around B14-65666." They conclude that the subject is the main candidate for follow-up observations. "Considering the rich data available and the spatially expanded nature, B14-65666 is one of the best goals for follow-up observations with ALMA and James Webb Space Telescope […]

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