Given his achievements, it's a surprise that Robert Hook is not better known. As a doctor, I especially appreciate it as a person who identifies the most important unit of biology – the cell.
As Leonardo da Vinci, Hook has an incredible number of fields. The remarkable range of his achievements in the 1600's include pneumatics, microscopy, mechanics, astronomy, and even civil engineering and architecture. But this "English Leonardo" – known at that time – has entered into relative uncertainty for several centuries
His life and his time
Hook's life is a story of rags to wealth. Born in 1635, he was trained at home by the father of the priest. Oscar for 13 years with a scant legacy, Hook's artistic talent has given him scholarships for Westminster School and later for Oxford University. There he creates relationships with various important people, especially Robert Boyle. Hook became a lab-maker of this great chemist, Boyle's lawyer, who describes the feedback between pressure and gas volume.
Unlike his collaborators, Hook is not a man of independent means, and he soon gets paid a "curator of experiments" in the newly formed Royal Society, which makes him the first scientific researcher in England. He soon became a collaborator of the Royal Society and was appointed Professor at Gresham College.
Never married, spent the rest of his life in rooms near the meeting place of the Royal Society. This puts it at the epicenter of one of the most important epochs in the history of science presented by Isaac Newton's "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".
One millennium before Hook, humans had looked at the air, along with fire, water, and earth, as one of the four elemental substances that fill the world without leaving empty spaces. Working with Boyle, Hook developed a vacuum pump that could free up the space. In such an evacuated vessel, a candle could not burn, and the bell was silent, proving that air was necessary for burning and sounding.
Furthermore, Hooke showed that the air can be expanded and compressed. He has also conducted fundamental experiments on the relationship between air and the breathing process in living organisms. He laid the foundations of thermodynamics, assuming that the particles in matter move faster as they heat up.  The most famous work of Hook is his beautifully illustrated "Micrograph", published in 1665. The microscope is a microscope, invented 30 years before his birth. Hook leaped the technology forward, using an oil lamp as a light source and a water lens to focus its rays to improve visualization. He showed that the kingdom of the very young is as rich and complex as the one with the naked eye. Examining the structure of the cork through his instrument, he pointed to the units he saw after the monks' rooms. Biologists already know that the human body contains about 40 trillion of them. From his microscopic work, Hook also developed a wave theory of light.
Hook pondered some of the biggest biological issues. He suggested that the presence of fossil fish in mountainous areas means they were once underwater. His study of fossils made him conclude that the Earth is inhabited by many extinct species. Hawk's experiments with mechanical springs have led to the formulation of Hook's law, which states that tension or compression of the spring is proportional to force. applied to it. Physicists already know that this law applies not only to springs but also to various rigid elastic bodies, such as manometers, which are used to measure the pressure. which will become a favorite means of preserving time for centuries. Hooke predicts that ocean sailors can find their length with a precise clock.
As an astronomer, Huk suggests that the planet Jupiter is rotating, describing the center of gravity of the Earth and the moon, illustrating the moon craters and speculating about their origins, discovering a double star, and illustrating the stars of the Pleiades. On a more theoretical level, Hook also describes gravity as a force that unifies the celestial bodies, linking in the 1679 letter to the Newton version of the square square law of the gravitational force. When seven years later Newton published his great work, "Mathematical Principles," Hook concluded incorrectly that Newton – who had already worked on him during the correspondence – had neglected him.