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Home https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Science https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ "The English Leonardo," a 17th-century scientific superstar – Raw Story

"The English Leonardo," a 17th-century scientific superstar – Raw Story



Given his achievements, it's a surprise that Robert Hook is not better known. As a doctor, I especially appreciate it as a person who identifies the most important unit of biology – the cell.

As Leonardo da Vinci, Hook has an incredible number of fields. The remarkable range of his achievements in the 1600's include pneumatics, microscopy, mechanics, astronomy, and even civil engineering and architecture. But this "English Leonardo" – known at that time – has entered into relative uncertainty for several centuries

His life and his time

Hook's life is a story of rags to wealth. Born in 1635, he was trained at home by the father of the priest. Oscar for 13 years with a scant legacy, Hook's artistic talent has given him scholarships for Westminster School and later for Oxford University. There he creates relationships with various important people, especially Robert Boyle. Hook became a lab-maker of this great chemist, Boyle's lawyer, who describes the feedback between pressure and gas volume.

Unlike his collaborators, Hook is not a man of independent means, and he soon gets paid a "curator of experiments" in the newly formed Royal Society, which makes him the first scientific researcher in England. He soon became a collaborator of the Royal Society and was appointed Professor at Gresham College.

Never married, spent the rest of his life in rooms near the meeting place of the Royal Society. This puts it at the epicenter of one of the most important epochs in the history of science presented by Isaac Newton's "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".

One millennium before Hook, humans had looked at the air, along with fire, water, and earth, as one of the four elemental substances that fill the world without leaving empty spaces. Working with Boyle, Hook developed a vacuum pump that could free up the space. In such an evacuated vessel, a candle could not burn, and the bell was silent, proving that air was necessary for burning and sounding.

Furthermore, Hooke showed that the air can be expanded and compressed. He has also conducted fundamental experiments on the relationship between air and the breathing process in living organisms. He laid the foundations of thermodynamics, assuming that the particles in matter move faster as they heat up. [19659909] The most famous work of Hook is his beautifully illustrated "Micrograph", published in 1665. The microscope is a microscope, invented 30 years before his birth. Hook leaped the technology forward, using an oil lamp as a light source and a water lens to focus its rays to improve visualization. He showed that the kingdom of the very young is as rich and complex as the one with the naked eye. Examining the structure of the cork through his instrument, he pointed to the units he saw after the monks' rooms. Biologists already know that the human body contains about 40 trillion of them. From his microscopic work, Hook also developed a wave theory of light.

Hook pondered some of the biggest biological issues. He suggested that the presence of fossil fish in mountainous areas means they were once underwater. His study of fossils made him conclude that the Earth is inhabited by many extinct species. Hawk's experiments with mechanical springs have led to the formulation of Hook's law, which states that tension or compression of the spring is proportional to force. applied to it. Physicists already know that this law applies not only to springs but also to various rigid elastic bodies, such as manometers, which are used to measure the pressure. which will become a favorite means of preserving time for centuries. Hooke predicts that ocean sailors can find their length with a precise clock.

As an astronomer, Huk suggests that the planet Jupiter is rotating, describing the center of gravity of the Earth and the moon, illustrating the moon craters and speculating about their origins, discovering a double star, and illustrating the stars of the Pleiades. On a more theoretical level, Hook also describes gravity as a force that unifies the celestial bodies, linking in the 1679 letter to the Newton version of the square square law of the gravitational force. When seven years later Newton published his great work, "Mathematical Principles," Hook concluded incorrectly that Newton – who had already worked on him during the correspondence – had neglected him.

The monument of Hook and Rehn on the Great Fire. in 1666 he is still in London today.
The Big Fire in London in 1666 gave another opportunity for Hooke to shine. Unlike many contemporaries, he refused to earn dishonestly after the disaster by taking bribes while people were working for recovery. As an inspector of the city, he collaborated with the famous architect Christopher Wren to create a monument to the fire.

He also designs a number of large buildings, including the Bethlehem hospital, the Greenwich Royal Observatory, and the Royal College of Medicine. Hook, largely through his architectural work, earned his fortune, though he never deviated from the modest habits he developed early in life. Hook even offered to recreate the streets of London with a grate. Although unsuccessful, his idea was subsequently included in cities like Liverpool and Washington, USA.

Exploring the scope and depth of Hook's contribution, it's hard to believe that one person could have done so much in 67 years. Unfortunately, controversial controversies with Newton for scientific priority have contributed to its relatively neglect by historians of science, and today we lack a contemporary image of it. His birthday is a good time to indulge him as one of the world's largest manufacturers of tools, experimenters and polymathes.

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Richard Ganderman, Professor of Medicine, Liberal Arts and Philanthropy of the Chancellor, Indiana University

This article is reissued under the Creative Commons license. Read the original article.



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