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The Apollo program evokes images of Neil Armstrong's first steps on the moon and the efforts of the team associated with it. But a fundamental solution that led to a successful landing on the Moon came largely as a result of a person's determination to hold onto NASA's system.
This guy is John H. Ubult. to get to the moon prevailed over the ideas pushed by NASA's toughest offenders, including the native German scientist Werner von Braun who designed Saturn V, and Max Faget, an immigrant from the British Honduras who is responsible for the Mercury capsule . In April 1961, President John F. Kennedy set fire to America's space program, vowing to send "man on the moon and [return] safely to Earth" before the late 1960s. But NASA first had to answer a fundamental question: What was the exact mode to reach the moon? Without knowing that it is impossible even to start designing the machines to go there.
In the late 1950s, before America had even put a man in space, NASA was already thinking what would be needed to put the astronauts on the moon. But there was no broad consensus. Three major camps, which quickly became factions, supported different solutions.
There was a heated debate behind the scenes, with many space agency engineers attracted to what seemed to be the most obvious approach, a plan known as a direct climb.
Think ahead of the space concepts of travel from Apollo: a rocket launches from Earth, fired directly to the moon, and then lands, carrying with it all the fuel and consumables needed to arrive and return home.
"Most people just wanted to build a large rocket and arrange it and send it to the moon," says Roger Launion, former chief historian and senior NASA historian at Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.
A direct climb required a huge vehicle to make the moon landing, something that might have been 50 feet or more in height and extremely uncertain to land. A huge new rocket, Nova – even larger than the already titanic Saturn V – will only be needed to erect such a beast in the orbit of the Earth. The new one was still on the drawing board, and even Brown Brown doubted the feasibility and how fast he could be ready to fly.
The bottom line, according to Launius: "There was no way to do [direct ascent] within the time Kennedy has set for landing." The second Camp, led by von Braun, likes another option – something called Earth Orbit or EOR.
Around Earth Orbit
In essence, this was a variation of the topic of direct climb. EOR turned on the same giant vehicle to go to the Moon and required two or more Saturn Vs to release the pieces in orbit on Earth where the astronauts would collect them using a space station as a base for operations. in NASA, "according to facts published by NASA in 1992," especially among those who have admitted that selection [its] … requires a virtual space station structure, a platform in Earth's orbit that can have a lot other uses, scientific and otherwise, beyond Apollo. "Von Brown has long dreamed of a space station, and as the debate grew stronger, he stubbornly adhered to the EOR," says Launius.
The Moon Orbital Medium 19659007] There was also a third way – a candidate for the dark horse, favored by a minority engineer led by Houbolt at NASA Langley's Research Center, Mid-Lane Orbit, or LOR, would require only one Saturn V and two smaller vehicles to go to the Moon – a mother ship to stay in the moon's orbit, which became known as a command module, while a light moon module designed to just land and return from the moon's surface made a descent
The astronauts that walk the moon about a quarter million miles from each rescue would have to to connect the two spaceships to get home
To NASA's institution that sounded too risky, almost all but Hoult and the group of Langley supporters rejected it. At that time, no one has ever made meetings or harbors in space-maneuvers, which today are considered bread and oil from space flights, but in the early 1960s they were discouraging and inexperienced concepts.
"If the meeting had to be part of the Apollo project, LOR critics feel that this should only be done in the Earth's orbit," according to NASA data. If the maneuver is not successful, astronauts can easily get home. However, "if the meeting around the moon fails, the astronauts would be too far to be saved." Nothing can be done "