Huawei officially announced the Huawei P30 Pro today. Although there is a new Huawei-made SoC, a built-in optical fingerprint reader and many other high-end features, the most important thing is the optical zoom of the camera, which is up to 5x. There is no digital zoom. Real, Optical Zoom
On most high-end smartphones today, such as the iPhone XS and the Galaxy S10, you'll only get 2X optical zoom. They usually exist in a second sensor and a lens on the back of the phone, allowing you to choose between the standard 1x lens or the optional 2x lens. The reason why you typically do not get large multiplier scales in smartphones is that the zoom lens takes space. Inside the zoom lens is a series of smaller lenses, some of which move inside the lens body to change the focal length. Larger distance between the lenses will give you a larger multiplier scale, and in real cameras this can reach a few feet long.
Space, of course, is of paramount importance for smartphones. Imagine a face-down smartphone and will have to hold a vertical display stack, a CMOS sensor and a lens about 8 mm high. There is simply not much room.
But what if we did not have we arrange all the components vertically? Huawei's 5-fold optical zoom is that he uses a periscope design. The outside looks like a normal camera setting, though with a funky opening of a square camera. Inside, however, the components make a right turn after 90 degrees, then the lens of the lens and the CMOS sensor are located horizontally. Now, instead of having to pack a bunch of lenses and CMOS chips into an 8mm vertical telephone space, we have acrylics on a horizontal phone space. We saw prototypes of Oppo's periscope cameras, but Huawei P30 Pro is the first in terms of commercial devices.