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Home https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Health https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ The ozone hole is now the smallest that has been EVERYTHING since its discovery in 1982, NASA confirms

The ozone hole is now the smallest that has been EVERYTHING since its discovery in 1982, NASA confirms



The hole in the ozone layer has shrunk to its smallest size since scientists began observing it in 1982 due to unusual atmospheric patterns in the upper atmosphere above Antarctica, according to NASA.

The hole varies in size annually and is usually the largest during the coldest months in the southern hemisphere, from late September to early October.

Recent space observations show that the hole now covers less than 3.9 million square miles – a record low and almost half less than it was during its peak at 6.3 million on September 8 just before six weeks. Experts say the hole is typically about 8 million square miles during this time of year.

Paul Newman, chief scientist for Earth Sciences at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, said this was "great ozone news in the Southern Hemisphere."

But he warned: "I have an important admission that what we see this year is due to warmer stratospheric temperatures. This is not a sign that atmospheric ozone is suddenly heading towards recovery. "

  Between September and October the hole narrowed to about 3.9 million square miles (10 million square kilometers) - the lowest size ever recorded.

Between September and October, the hole shrunk to about 3.9 million square miles (10 million square kilometers) – the most the lowest ever recorded [NASANASAandNOAAobservations

  believe the hole reached its highest size for the year at 6.3 million square miles on September 8

NASA and NOAA observations find the hole reached its highest size of the year at 6.3 million square miles on September 8

  By early October, the ozone lounge could be seen to be reduced to about 3.9 million square miles. The Dobson Division can be seen on the left, measuring the amount of trace gas in a vertical column through the Earth's atmosphere

By early October, it could be seen that the ozone hole had shrunk to about 3.9 million square miles. The Dobson Division can be seen on the left measuring the amount of trace gas in a vertical column through the Earth's atmosphere

  The ozone hole was largest in September 2006 when it covered a huge 10.6 million square miles

The ozone hole was the largest in September 2006 when it covered a huge 10.6 million square miles [19659018] WHAT IS OZONE SLINE?

Ozone is a molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms, which occurs naturally in small quantities.

In the stratosphere, approximately seven to 25 miles above the earth's surface, the ozone layer acts as a sunscreen, protecting the planet from potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation.

Produced in tropical latitudes and distributed worldwide.

Closer to the earth, ozone can also be generated by photochemical reactions between the sun and pollution from vehicle emissions and other sources of harmful smog.

In the 1970s, it was recognized that chemicals called CFCs are used, for example, in refrigerators and aerosols that destroy ozone in the stratosphere.

In 1987, the Montreal Protocol was approved, which led to the gradual elimination of CFCs and more recently to the first signs of ozone depletion in Antarctica.

In the lower latitudes, the upper stratosphere also shows clear signs of recovery, suggesting that the Montreal Protocol is working well.

According to NASA, the "main ingredient" in the process of ozone depletion is the so-called polar stratospheric clouds.

These relatively rare bodies occur high in the stratosphere at an altitude of 49,000-82,000 feet (15,000-25,000 meters) above the surface.

These clouds provide a surface on which chemical reactions can occur – releasing waste products called "free radicals" that continue to destroy the ozone particles around them.

However, less polar stratospheric clouds are formed during warmer weather and they also continue for shorter periods of time under such conditions.

This year, warmer global temperatures – aided by unusual meteorological patterns – helped limit the development of these clouds, as well as those that form less time to damage the ozone layer.

This, in turn, resulted in a much smaller ozone hole this year than before.

On the surface, the strengthening of the ozone layer appears to be a promising development – as such it serves to better protect the Earth from harmful UV radiation from the Sun.

But the news that a hole shrinks is not necessarily a good sign – because the process that closes the hole is a clear product of rising global temperatures.

In years with more typical weather, the hole typically reaches a maximum size of about 8 million square miles by the end of September or the beginning of October – before it shrinks again.

  The gases separated from human processes on Earth erode the layer of ozone that surrounds the globe. The holes in the layer mean more heat than the Sun makes it through and down to the level of the Earth, which warms the surface and the oceans

The gases released from human processes on Earth destroy the layer of ozone that surrounds the globe; the holes in the layer mean more heat than the Sun. it makes it over and down to the level of the Earth, which heats the surface and oceans

Highly reactive ozone molecule – known as trioksigen – contains three oxygen atoms and is pale blue gas with pungent odor.

Can be found 25 miles above the Earth's surface in the stratosphere.

Reacting with high-energy ultraviolet rays, ozone acts as a layer on the solar screen – absorbing harmful rays into the stratosphere before reaching the Earth's surface.

Ozone is generated mainly by ultraviolet radiation when high-energy ultraviolet rays hit ordinary oxygen molecules (O2).

This splits the molecule into two single oxygen atoms – called "oxygen atom" – with the released oxygen atoms to combine with regular oxygen molecules to form ozone (O3).

This reaction helps protect the planet from potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation, which can cause skin cancer, cataracts, suppress the immune system and also damage plants.

  Ozone depletion observed in blue increases in August 2019, Pictured in August 7

  Ozone depletion observed in blue grows in August 2019, in the photo on August 27

Ozone depletion observed in blue grows in August 2019, pictured in August 7 (left) and August 27

Ozone Antarctica's "hole", which is technically not a hole but an area of ​​depletion, forms in the late winter of the Southern Hemisphere, while the returning sun rays start to cause ozone-depleting reactions.

These runaway reactions include the chemically active Rm chlorine and bromine obtained from man-made compounds and occur on the surfaces of cloud particles in cold stratospheric layers – the degradation of ozone molecules.

Warmer temperatures mean less polar stratospheric clouds that limit the ozone depletion that can occur on their surface.

NASA and NOAA monitor the ozone hole using satellites, including NASA's Aura satellite, NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar Orbital Partnership Satellite, and NOAA's Joint NOAA-20 Satellite System.

At the South Pole, NOAA employees fire meteorological balloons carrying ozone measuring probes that directly test ozone levels vertically through the atmosphere. South Pole from Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Scientists are launching these balloon-carrying sensors to measure the thickness of the protective ozone layer high in the atmosphere. A time-lapse photograph taken on September 9, 2019. ” class=”blkBorder img-share” />

The flight path of ozone, as it ascends into the atmosphere above the South Pole from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Scientists are launching these balloon-carrying sensors to measure the thickness of the protective ozone layer high in the atmosphere. Duration Photo taken on September 9, 2019

Most years, at least some levels of the stratosphere — the region of the upper atmosphere where the highest amounts of ozone are usually found — are completely devoid of ozone.

Brian Johnson at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, says, "This year, the ozone measurements at the South Pole do not show the parts of the atmosphere where ozone is completely depleted."

is a rarity, not unprecedented. "This is the third time in 40 years that meteorological systems have caused warm temperatures that limit ozone depletion," said Susan Strahan, an atmospheric scientist at the NASA Goddard Space Science Association.

  The polar solar vortex observed in red above the south pole, which was unusually "foggy" this year

The polar solar the vortex observed in red above the south pole, which was unusually "bizarre" this year.

Similar weather patterns in the Antarctic stratosphere in September 1988 and 2002 also created atypically small ozone holes, she said.

Dr Strahan said: "This is a rare event that we are still trying to understand. If the warming had not happened, we would probably look at a much more typical ozone hole. "

No link has been found between the emergence of these unique models and climate change.

Weather systems that disrupted the ozone hole in 2019 are usually modest in September, but this year they were unusually strong, dramatically warming the stratosphere.

At an altitude of about 12 miles (20 kilometers), temperatures in September were 29F (16˚C) warmer than average, the warmest in the 40-year history. a record for September with a large stock.

In addition, they meteorological systems also weakened Antarctica's polar vortex, knocking it from its normal center over the South Pole and reducing the strong September jet stream around Antarctica from an average speed of 161 mph to a speed of 67 mph.

the vortex rotation allowed the air to sink into the lower layer of the atmosphere, where ozone depletion was observed, which meant that the lower stratosphere of Antarctica had been warmed – limiting the polar stratospheric clouds where the reactions of uni ozhavane ozone.

Strong meteorological systems have also brought ozone-rich air from greater latitudes elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere to the area above the Antarctic ozone hole.

A combination of these two effects resulted in much higher than normal ozone levels over Antarctica compared to the ozone hole conditions typically present since the mid-1980s.

As of October 16, the ozone hole above Antarctica remains small. but stable and is expected to gradually dissipate in the coming weeks.


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