Home https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Science https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ The sun experiences a less active phase called the “solar minimum”, but this will not lead to an ice age.

The sun experiences a less active phase called the “solar minimum”, but this will not lead to an ice age.

And just like us, it goes through phases and changes. Over time, these changes in our star have become more predictable. He is currently going through a less active phase,, called the solar minimum.

The sun experiences regular 11-year intervals, including vigorous peaks of activity, followed by low points.

During the peak, the sun shows more sunspots and solar flames.

At a sunny minimum, the sun is much quieter, which means less sunspots and energy.

NASA scientists claim that we are currently in the “Great Solar Minimum”. The last time this happened was between 1650 and 1715, during what is known as the “Ice Age in the Northern Hemisphere”
;, “when a combination of cooling from volcanic aerosols and low solar activity led to more “low surface temperatures,” according to NASA’s Global Climate Change blog.

But this sunny minimum will not cause another ice age, they say. And this is probably due to climate change.

NASA's mission to touch the sun solves our mysteries of the star

“The warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels by humans is six times greater than a possible decade of cooling from a prolonged Great Solar Minimum,” they wrote.

“Even if the Great Solar Minimum has lasted a century, global temperatures will continue to warm. Because more factors than just variations in the Sun’s output are changing global temperatures on Earth, the most dominant of which today is warming coming from human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. “

Scientists knew that this solar minimum was coming because it was a regular aspect of the solar cycle. Sunspots were at the top in 2014, with low points in early 2019, according to NASA.

The sun is also responsible for what is known as cosmic time, sending particles and cosmic rays, streams through our solar system. The Sun’s highly magnetized sunspots release solar flames that can send X-rays and ultraviolet radiation to Earth.

The Parker solar probe sends back images from its orbits to the sun

Even when the sun is quiet during the solar minimum, it can be active in other ways, such as coronal holes, which open into the solar atmosphere and send flaming streams of energy particles flying through the solar system in a fast solar wind.

Like solar flames, these particle fluxes during the solar minimum can disrupt the communications and GPS we rely on from satellites.

“We see these holes throughout the solar cycle, but during the solar minimum, they can last a long time – six months or more,” said Dean Pesnell, a scientist on the NASA’s Space Dynamics Observatory project in 2017. NASA Blog Post.

More powerful energy particles, called galactic cosmic rays, can reach Earth, especially its upper atmosphere, during the solar minimum. They were created by explosions in our Milky Way galaxy as supernovae.

“During the solar minimum, the Sun’s magnetic field weakens and provides less shielding than these cosmic rays,” Pesnell said. “This could pose an increased threat to astronauts traveling through space.”

This week, NASA’s Sun & Space account shared this on Twitter amid concerns about the solar minimum. “The sun goes through regular cycles of high and low activity. This cycle affects the frequency of cosmic meteorological events, but it does not have a large effect on the Earth’s climate – even an extended minimum would not have a significant effect on global temperature. “

This solar minimum completes the solar cycle 24. According to early forecasts, the peak of the solar cycle 25 will occur in July 2025, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

The forecast for the solar cycle is based on an international panel, co-chairs of NOAA and NASA. They agree that the solar cycle 25 will be similar to cycle 24.

Studying the sun

In August 2018, NASA launched the Parker solar probe to get closer to the sun than any satellite before. This is a unique opportunity to study the “star in our backyard,” as NASA Heliophysics Director Nicola Fox likes to say. And we witness the sun during the solar minimum up close.

The probe is designed to help answer basic questions about the solar wind that blows from the sun, throwing energy particles into the solar system. Its instruments can also give an idea of ​​why the solar corona, the star’s outer atmosphere, is so hotter than the actual surface. The crown is 1 million kelvins, while the surface is about 6,000 kelvins.

Understanding the solar wind and the blazing heat of the corona is key. Both play a role in space weather and solar storms, and understanding the solar wind can allow for better forecasting of space weather.

Solar winds and corona temperatures also affect the ejection of mass from the corona, which could affect the Earth’s global energy grid and telecommunications, as well as our astronauts on the International Space Station. The energized and accelerated particles emanating from the sun into the solar wind are also responsible for the northern and southern light we see on Earth.

First detailed images of the stormy surface of the sun, thanks to a new telescope
Some of the first results of the probe’s early orbits around the sun have already proved intriguing.

During its first close encounter with the sun, the Parker solar probe essentially hung over a hole in the corona for a week, observing particles of the solar wind moving along the line of the sun’s magnetic field and out into space.

“It’s amazing – even under minimal solar conditions, the Sun produces far more small energy events from particles than we ever thought,” said David McComas, principal investigator of integrated solar package research, or ISʘIS, at Princeton University in New Jersey. in a statement when the first results were released. “These measurements will help us figure out the sources, acceleration and transport of solar energy particles and ultimately better protect satellites and astronauts in the future.”

During the probe’s seven-year mission, its orbit will shrink, approaching it and approaching the sun over 21 approaches.

The probe will orbit within 3.9 million miles of the Sun’s surface in 2024, closer to the star than Mercury. Although this sounds far-fetched, researchers equate it to a probe sitting on a quadruple line on a football field, and the sun is the end zone.

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