Space Telescope Research Institute Public Service Service (NASA, ESA, A. Race STScI / Initially, the general assumption was that Rhys and the rest observe But when their observations continued to appear, the results did not move.Planck's data reanalysis has not shown any problems
If all the numbers are correct then the problem should be deeper "It must lie in our interpretation of these numbers-that is, in our basic models of how the Universe works." The divergence implies that there is something in the cosmological model that we do not understand properly, "says Rhys. What can be something, no one knows.
The Discovery of the Dawn of Time
The current inconsistency traces its origins since 1929, when the astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that the galaxies flee the Earth in all directions. Even more shocking, Hubble found that the farther the galaxies are, the faster they are separated. This pattern means that they all run away from each other. "The only way this can be true is if space is expanding," says Rhys.
If the idea of an expanding universe seems strange to you, welcome to the club.
"It's still strange to me, too," says Rees, "but that shows all the data, and that predicts our theory." Even Hubble never took the full effect of its own work
The expanding universe, that the universe has a certain age because you can trace the action back to the time when everything in space has been crammed in an extremely dense, hot state: what we call the Big Bang
"This is another solid concept for people, to get their heads, "said Undy Friedman, CO "The big bang is an explosion of space, not space," she said.
In other words, the galaxies do not fly away from each other through the space The space itself has been stretching between them and has been since the Big Bang, so it is pointless to ask where the big bang happened, and that's what happened everywhere, as the Freeman says, "there is no center or edge of the explosion."
the growing universe has the beginning of time – at least the time it has known vame. By measuring the speed at which galaxies move apart, astronomers have understood that they can understand the moment when space flashes in existence. All they had to do was figure out how to make their galactic measurements exactly.
The Freedom Day Freeman has been working on this problem for more than three decades, much longer than expected. "It's an incredible challenge," she says. "Imagine taking measurements of hundreds of millions of light years to 1 percent accuracy!
The Hubble himself dropped the test. Its initial calculations suggest a universe younger than Earth because it drastically underestimated distances to other galaxies.
The difficulty of making direct observations of other galaxies is one of the reasons scientists have created the Planck space telescope. It's designed to detect radiation left over from the Big Bang. The image of this broadcast shows the exact physical state of the early universe if you know how to decode it. In principle, therefore, Plank readings must tell us everything we want to know about what the universe is made of and how old it is. Planck has been a huge success by pinning solid numbers on the soft riddles of space. , It shows that 26% of the universe consists of dark matter, an invisible material that helps keep the galaxies together. He also confirmed the surprising discovery that the universe is dominated by dark energy, an unknown force that penetrates the entire void. (The discovery of dark energy is what won the Rhys shared Nobel Prize for 2011).
The probable significance of these discoveries is that the universe will continue to expand forever, faster and faster, into ever deeper darkness. This is an embarrassing thought that Rhys preferred not to stop: "The scale of time is so far away from humanity, I do not think of it in the human sense."
Most satisfying, perhaps, Planck finally finished the job , which Hubble began by determining how quickly the universe expanded and how long it was around. There is no big thing
Fortunately, Freedman and Reese and their colleagues have not given up on their alternative approach to determining the age of the universe. They continued to improve their observations and are now approaching the ambitious target of 1% accuracy. Which leads us to the current dispute – what scientists politely call "tension."
The latest galaxy research shows that the expansion rate is about 9% faster than Planck's response. This may not sound like much of the disagreement, but over cosmic history it adds to this full billion years of lost time.
Taking into account the bet, all participants check and check their results for possible sources of error. More and more, however, it seems that the problem lies not in the observations but in the theories of cosmology that support them. If these theories are wrong or incomplete, the interpretation of Planck's testimony will also be wrong. Planck's results. "This means that you have to do a charming job to see if there is something that can explain everything."
"Tension" reminds scientists how much they still do not understand about the basic laws. of nature. Dunkley points to the ghostly particles known as neutrinos, which are extremely rich in space. "We measure neutrinos in the lab and put them in our cosmological model assuming that they behave exactly as we expect, but we just do not know if that's true," she says. "I would not have thought surprising if the dark matter turned out to be more complicated than we think."
Then there is the mystery of dark energy. "We do not have good ideas about what it is. Maybe there are still elements from the model side still to be discovered," Freedman says. There are no shortages of theoreticians: new types of dark energy, new fields, new particles
Understanding what explanation is true – if any – will require another enormous improvement in the way we actually measure the action of the universe. Freedman is not inclined to the magnitude of our ignorance: "The question is, what else do we have to learn? I would like to go back a hundred or a thousand years and find out!"
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