Nearly a year in space has put Scott Kelly's asthma immune system to a high level and changes the activity of some of his genes compared to his identical twin on Earth, researchers said on Friday.
Scientists do not know whether the changes are good or bad, but the results of a unique NASA twin study raise new questions for doctors as the space agency aims to send people to Mars.
Genetic pairs tests gave scientists the opportunity to track details of human biology
A puzzling change announced Friday in a scientific conference: Kelly's immune system is hyperactivated.
<img id = "i-7f93ccf8e0f0e837" src = "https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2019/02/16/16/9897756-6712301-image-a-27_1550333409972.jpg" height ===================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================== " cosmopolitan Kazakhstan,  Scott Kelley, a crew member of the International Space Station, is behind the glass in a quarantine room behind his brother Mark Kelley, also an astronaut, in 2015 after a press conference at Russian-lean Baikonur, Kazakhstan cosmodrom
Mark Kelly talks on the scene in Locat ionWorld 2016 Day 1 in Conrad on November 2, 2016 in New York City with his twin brother Scott back the earth
<img id = "i-494b583ae564f28a" src = "https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2019/02/16/16/9898126-6712301-image-a-38_1550334046308. The International Space Station (ISS), shot by an expedition of 56 crew members from the Soyuz spacecraft International Space Station (ISS), captured by an expedition 56 crew members from Soyuz Spacecraft after the October 4, 2018
"She seems to react to this alien environment like you, a mysterious organism in you," said geneticist Christopher Mason of Weill Cornell Medicine in New York, who helped guide the study. He said the doctors are now looking for this with other astronauts.
Since the beginning of the space exploration, NASA has explored the victims of the astronauts' bodies, such as bone loss, which requires counteraction exercises. Usually they are in the space about six months at a time. Kelly, who lived at the International Space Station, spent 340 days in space and recorded an American record.
"I never felt completely normal in space," said Kelly withdrawn in an e-mail of the Associated Press, referring to the usual overload of fluid displacement, headache and difficulty concentrating on extra carbon dioxide, and digestive complaints from microgravity.
But this study is a unique diving on a molecular level, with former astronaut Mark Kelley, a Scott twin for comparison. Full results have not yet been published, but researchers have presented some findings Friday at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Scott Kelly (left) reacts aboard the International Space Station after the opening of the Soyuz spacecraft hatch 28 March 2015
Scott Kelly gets flu by September 24, 2015. Vaccination is part of the NASA twin study. Advantage of the unique opportunity to study twin astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly
One-year crew members of NASA Scott Kelly's mission on the left) and Mikhail Kornignko from Rossk smos (right) celebrates its 300 th consecutive day in space on January 21, 2016  A number of genes related to immune system became hyperactive said Mason. This is not a change in DNA, but in so-called "gene expression", how genes exclude and increase or decrease protein production. Mason has also noticed a spike in the blood stream of another marker that nurtures the immune system. But at the same time, Kelly's blood shows less another type of cell, which is early protection against viruses.
It is no surprise that gene activity will change in space – it changes in response to all sorts of stress. You can see that the body adapts to the change in the environment, "Mason said.
Scott Kelly, left, and his twin brother Mark Kelly put on a picture of 26 March 2015 at Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan
Astronaut Mark Kelly (left) with twin brother Scott Kelly (right) on the red carpet of "#LEGENDARYFUTURE" Roadshow 2018 New York on February 22, 2018
Good news: Most all came back to normal shortly after Kelly returned to Earth in March 2016. These immune-related genes,
"nevertheless," appear to have had this memory or it was almost supposed to be at a high level "even six months later "Mason said.
"It's generally encouraging," said Craig Kondro, who heads NASA's space life and research. "There are no big new warning signs. We see changes that we did not necessarily expect, "but we do not know whether these changes matter.
Of the four Russians who have been living in space for more than a year, NASA already knows it's possible for a long time outside Earth. adding: "We are also striving for something more than possible. We want our astronauts to do more than simply survive. "
Finally, the twin study gives NASA a catalog of things to keep track of future missions to see if other astronauts react in the same way.
Scott Kelly sees himself in the dome, a special module that provides a 360-degree view of the Earth and the International Space Station. Kelly is one of two crew members who spend a whole year in space
Scott Kelly Tests How The Human Body Responds To Extended Space Presence As a Preparation for Long Flight NASA's Plans for Mars and the Future
Immune issues sound familiar to Dr. Jerry Lingenger, an American astronaut who spent more than four months at the Russian Space Station Mir. He said he was never in orbit, but once he returned to Earth, "I've probably been sicker than my life." after a week with nothing new in the "very sterile environment" of a space station, your immune system is really not contested, Lingenger said.
A human mission on Mars, which NASA hopes to launch in the 2030s,
Radiation is a major problem The mission will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation levels higher than NASA's own safety standard. "It's just a bit over," he said.
On the Earth and even on the space station, the Earth's magnetic field protects astronauts from a lot of radiation. On the way to Mars and back there would be no such protection, but tunnels or dirty habitats could help a little on Mars, said Kundrot
Kelly, 55 years old, said he would go to Mars. He said that one trip would be no worse than what I experienced. Probably better. I think the big physical challenge, aside from radiation, will be a mission where you have been in space for years. "