Adult skulls showing an end-to-end bite (A and B), and an adult skull showing slight compression (C). The roots of this study date back to 1985 when American linguist Charles Hockett showed that words with labyrinthine sounds were largely absent in the languages of collectors 'hunters' societies (1969008) – observation that he attributes to the bite-to-edge configuration due to the lack of soft agricultural taste. foods. Hocks contemporaries do not buy this argument, but now, almost 35 years later, Blayz and his colleagues have resumed this idea. On a press conference held on Tuesday, Blazy said the new study is the culmination of five years of work with the help of experts in anthropology, phonetics and historical linguistics. The team, which included researchers from the Max Planck Institute, Lyon University and Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, developed new methodologies specific to research, including the development of new data sets and human biomechanics simulation models.
Critics of Hockett's hypothesis say that wear and tear can not fully explain changes in the bite configuration of a person, and that end-to-end bites do not begin to disappear long after the introduction of agriculture. In the new study, however, the authors acknowledge that Hockett, who died in 2000, may have found something, saying that "recent anthropological evidence has shown that tooth wear … is the main mechanism for changing the bite after the teenager, and despite significant differences, a general reduction in bite from end to end has been observed from the Neolithic. "
Indeed, food introduced by agriculture – products like mash, soups and pulses, and dairy products such as cheese, milk and yogurt – lead to dramatically softer diets. Importantly, and as the authors pointed out in the study, the lack of heavy, heavy foods rather than the presence of soft foods contributed to changes in the bite configuration – a physiological process known as a debilitating occlusion
. A key point in the new study is that overhead makes it easy to announce lab-idlers. This ease of effort, the authors say, eventually led to the emergence and spread of words with "f" and "v" sounds. The biomechanical computer models used in the study seem to confirm this assumption, demonstrating that 29% less energy is needed to produce labidifiers with a bend compared to an end-to-end bite. Speaking at the press conference, the authors stated that the emergence of lab-sounding sounds was not the result of a "deterministic" process, is not inevitable. Adopting a softer diet simply increased the likelihood of this happening.
"The production of labyrinthine sounds does not come at the cost of making other sounds," Baltazar Bickel, a Linguist at the University of Zurich, and a co-author at the press conference. "Thousands and Thousands of Tests" – i. the involuntary introduction of lab-idlers into speech – "has for many generations left a statistical footprint," he said – the footprint is the current spread of words with labdies. The authors also went deep into the world's languages, finding that "average hunting-gathering societies have only about 27% of the number of lab studies presented by food-producing societies," as noted in the study. Together with evolutionary biology, the researchers conducted a phylogenetic analysis, but instead of tracking the physical changes of the species, they track changes in the Indo-European languages over time. The analysis showed that lab-sounding sounds spread rapidly in other languages.
"In Europe, our data shows that the use of labyrinths has increased dramatically only in the last few millennia, which is related to the growth of food processing technologies such as industrial grinding," Steven Moran, a Linguist at the University of Zurich. and a co-author of the new study, said in a press release.
"This study will come as a surprise to many experts on language and language changes – that certainly surprised me."
It is important that the authors did not take into account changes in brain development or nutritional changes that may have affected this process. As Blazyy noted at the press conference, "We do not make any claims to the brain – we just studied the biomechanical factors."
"This study will come as a surprise to many language and language experts – it certainly surprised me." Tecumseh Fitch, an expert on bioacoustics and language evolution, and a professor of cognitive biology at the University of Vienna, told Gizmodo. "The study is an interdisciplinary tour-de-force, combining methods of biomechanics, bioacoustics, comparative and historical linguistics to inspire new life in the old hypothesis: Changes in the structure of the mouth caused by dietary changes form a historical change in language." ka for the authors relying on "different assumptions and reconstructions" of unknown factors – especially the biting structures of the present and ancient populations, but ultimately he believes they have presented "a very plausible case that will open the door for future detailed research "He added," This is perhaps the most convincing study that still shows how biological constraints on linguistic changes may change over time due to cultural change. "
Ian Madison, a linguist at the University of New Mexico said that "this book is a welcome addition to discussing the extent to which linguistic factors affect the phonetic design of human languages. however, he had some reservations about the new study.
In particular, Maddison is concerned about how the authors categorized and counted certain ladies, saying that there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the data used in the study, and that some of the lab-like sounds may be over-listed. In fact, given the novelty of the study and its rather surprising conclusion, it would be a good idea for other researchers to dive and explore this opportunity further. Nevertheless, this article revives the hypothesis proposed for the first time about 35 years ago, and the authors show that this is a topic worth considering.
So the next time you paint a "f" word, be sure to suggest. thanks to your original agricultural ancestors.