NASA has formalized plans to send a crewed spacecraft to Mars, a journey that could involve 250 million miles of travel, said researchers from Northwestern University in the US.
In a multi-phase study, scientists are studying the behavior of analog astronaut crews on mock missions, complete with isolation, sleep deprivation, specially designed tasks and mission control, which mimics real space travel with delayed communication.
The goal is to establish the effects of isolation and confinement on team functioning, to identify methods to improve team performance, to develop and predict a model that NASA could use to assemble the ideal team and identify potential issues with already composed teams before and during the mission.
Even for an astronaut, the psychological demands of this Mars journey will be exceptional.
The spacecraft will be small, roughly the size of a studio apartment, and the round-trip journey will take almost three years.
"Astronauts have super humans. They are people who are incredibly physically fit and extremely smart," said Leslie DeChurch, a professor at Northwestern University.
"We're taking the state-of-the-art crew selection system and making it even better by finding the values, traits and other features that will allow NASA to compose crews that will get along," DeChurch said.
Communication delays with worldwide mission controls will exceed the 20-minute mark. In that sense, the Mars mission will be like no mission that has come before.
"A lot of the past efforts to try to create models to simulate the future have run into criticism because people have said it's not really grounded in good data," said Noshir Contractor, a professor at Northwestern University.
"What we have here is unprecedented good data." "We are not talking about intuition and expert views, this model is based on real data," said the Contractor.
The researchers have been culling data from the Human Experimentation Research Analog (HERA) at Houston's Johnson Space Center.
HERA's capsule simulator houses astronauts for up to 45 days; and mock mission control over the capsule augments the realism with sound effects, vibrations and communication delays.
Those on the inside undergo sleep deprivation and try to perform tasks. The researchers collect moment-to-moment metrics about individual performance, moods, psychosocial adaptation and more.
The teams have studied the diminished ability to think creatively and solve problems, according to the results of the first eight analogue space crews, and are able to successfully complete tasks between 20 and 60 percent of the time.
"Creative thinking and problem solving are the very things that really are going to matter on a Mars mission. We need the crew to get the right answer 1
The researchers are also expanding the experiment to the SIRIUS analogue in Moscow, where, beginning in March 15, four Russians and two Americans will take a 120-day fictional mission around the Moon, including a lunar landing operation.