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What are the 10 stages of genocide? | News

July 11 marks the 24th anniversary of the Srebrenica genocide, the most severe atrocities in European soil after the Holocaust

In July 1995, Serbian forces systematically killed more than 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys in the so-called UN [19659002] But what led to the massacre?

In the 1990s, genocide scientist Gregory X Stanton, an American, explored the stages of genocide that eventually became his "10 stages of genocide"

Genocide was not carried out by a small group of individuals, the state contributes to the genocide.

At any stage, preventive measures can stop the situation even further, Stanton noted. 1

9659004] Bosnian-Australian anthropologist Hariz Halilovic later added the eleventh stage, especially in the case of Bosnia – "triumphalism."

Here are the 10 stages of Stanton – and the 11th Halilovich – concerning the genocide in Srebrenica:

Steps 1, 2, 3: Classification, Symbolization and Discrimination

The idea of ​​Great Serbia , Kosovo, Croatia, Montenegro and other neighboring countries) dates back to the 19th century and was revived after the death of Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito in 1980.

With the fall of the Communist bloc, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and Serbian nationalists saw a chance to mobilize the masses to support the creation of homogeneity Serbian state. turning to the crowd in Belgrade in 1989, he presented himself as a savior of Sardoma and Europe.

Bosnians were usually called Turks, Balie (a Bosnian Muslim) and were called terrorists and Islamic "extremists."

Stage 4: Dehumanization [19659010] Many Serbs dehumanized Bosnians, viewing them as little more than Muslims, posing a threat to the Serbian hegemonic project. "In order to mobilize domestic public opinion against Muslims and justify future actions against them in the eyes of the West, the Serbian leadership needed an image of Islam as a totalitarian, internally violent and culturally extraterrestrial system on European soil," Fikret writes Karicic, a professor at the University of Sarajevo, in his article "Distorted images of Islam: the case of the former Yugoslavia. "Such a distorted view was provided by some influential Serbian Orientalists, the Orthodox Church and some historians. "

Stage 5: Organization

Bosnia's Destruction Plan and" Complete Destruction "The Muslim population was formed in the 1980s by the General Staff of the Yugoslav People's Army, according to Vladimir Srebrov, a politician who founded the UDF with a convicted Bosnian Serb war criminal Radovan Karadzic.

Known as the famous Framework Plan, its aim is to divide Bosnia into a major Serbia and major Croatia.

Officials explained how artillery, ammunition and military equipment would be stored in strategic locations in Croatia and Bosnia.

A secret police is planned to arm and train local Serbs to build police and military units in Bosnia.

A document written by the special services of the army, including psychological warfare experts, said the most effective way to create Terror and Panic among the Bosnian population would be by raping women, minors and even children. Stage 6: Polarization

Serbian and Bosnian Serbian media regularly broadcast polarizing PRs in one case while Serbian forces held Sarajevo under siege, state Belgrade television broadcasting a fake story to feed hatred, including the line: "Muslim extremists came" with the most terrifying way in the world of torture. Last night they fed Serbian children with lions in the town's zoo. "

Organized by Belgrade, Serbia, Weapons were handed over to the Serbian population by the truck in 1990 and 1991 in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

This was announced in the evening news and was viewed by several million viewers. "Weapons and military equipment had even arrived from military helicopters of Serbian military officers. It is said that, in the end, almost no Serbian house had an automatic gun, "says a 1994 UN report

" The pretext of arms supplies and rearmament is that it is necessary to protect against " "In Bosnia, influential, intellectual Bosnians were often among the first to be executed, with their names written in the death lists."

While Serbian troops arrived in every city, they killed non-Serbs, often after them tortured and Bosnian property confiscated

In Bosnia, from 1992 to 1995, 50,000 Bosnian and Croatian women, girls and young children were raped “/>

A woman goes through the cemetery in Potokari, Bosnia On Wednesday, March 20, 2019 [Marko Drobnjakovic/AP]

In Priedor, a city in West Bosnia, the Bosnians were forced to wear white strips to be clearly identified and to tie the white flags with their doors

Throughout the country 200 1,000 people were deported to concentration camps where they were tortured, hungry, and killed.

Others who live under siege, like in Sarajevo and Mostar, are hungry while they are subject to snipers and heavy shells.

] Srebrenica, which was known as the largest camp in the world, has been under siege for three years before falling to the Bosnian Serb forces in July 1995

Serbian troops separate boys and men aged between 12 and 77 from the rest of the

Stage 9: Extinction

On July 11, at 16:15, General Ratko Mladic (now a convicted war criminal) entered Srebrenica with Serb forces, including militants. from Serbia, claiming the town as Serbs. Walking down the streets with the mobile TV cameras, Mladic announced that there would be "revenge against the Turks".

Ratko Mladic was sentenced to life imprisonment for genocide

Panickers in the enclave escaped to the base of the Dutch battalion. only to find that 400 lightly armed peacekeepers are unable to protect them. Serbian forces have inherited much larger resources than the former Yugoslav Army, the fourth largest in the world at the time.

On this day, thousands of Bosnian men began to escape through the forest, forming a column and walking about 100 kilometers. in an attempt to reach a free territory controlled by the Bosnian Army

The trip was known as a march of death because they were attacked, shot and attacked by Serb forces. Less than a quarter of them survived.

For more than six days, more than 8,000 Bosnians were killed. Women and young children were deported.

  Excavation of Mass graves near the Ceska Reka Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina - July 1996: Extermination of mass graves near Cres, a Bosnian-Serbian army led by General Ratko Mladic,

Exhumation of a mass graveyard near Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina [File: Laurent Van der Stockt/ Getty Images]

Stage 10: Refusal

In an attempt to conceal the killings, the Serb forces transported the bodies of bulldozers and trucks and buried them in many places, leaving the victims "

Human bones can be found on a distance of 20 km, which makes it difficult for the family to give their loved ones a proper burial.

According to a poll by Al Jazeera from the Balkans in 2018, 66% of Serbs in Republika Srpska deny genocide.

Denial of genocide is commonplace in academic and political circles in Republika Srpska and Serbia.

Genocide is firmly denied by politicians, including Milorad Dodik, the current chairman and Serbian member of Bosnia and Herzegovina's tripartite presidency, Anna Brnbich

"[Denial] is among the safest indicators for further killings in genocide" , writes Stanton.

  Mladic supporters demonstrate in Belgrade BELGRADE, SERBIA - MAY 29: Ratko Mladic's wave proponents leap with his picture and read in Serbian "Serbian hero" during a rally

Mladic's supporters demonstrate in Belgrade against the arrest of Ratko Mladic [Srdjan Stevanovic/Getty Images]

Stage 11: Triumphalism today criminals are respected and revered as heroes of the war. According to the 2018 survey, 74% of Serbs in Republika Srpska consider Bosnian Serb convicted of war crimes fugitive Radovan Karadzic guilty of genocide and war crimes. function (e, b, e, v, n, t, s)
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