قالب وردپرس درنا توس
Home https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Science https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Why do philosophers believe that we have reached the pinnacle of human intelligence

Why do philosophers believe that we have reached the pinnacle of human intelligence



Despite the great advances in science over the last century, our understanding of nature is still far from complete. Not only have scientists failed to find the Holy Grail of physics – combining the very large (general relativity) with the very small (quantum mechanics) – they still do not know what the vast majority of the universe is made of. The sought-after theory of everything still escapes us. There are other extraordinary puzzles, such as how consciousness arises from ordinary matter.

Will he ever learn to give all the answers? Human brains are the product of blind and uneducated evolution. They are designed to solve practical problems affecting our survival and reproduction, not to unravel the fabric of the universe. This awareness has led some philosophers to adopt a curious form of pessimism, claiming that they are bound to be things we will never understand. Therefore, human science will one day hit a hard line ̵

1; and may have already done so.

Some questions may be doomed to remain what the American linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky called "mysteries." If you think that humans themselves have unlimited cognitive powers – separating us from all other animals – you have not fully mastered Darwin's insight that Homo Sapiens is very much a part of the natural world.

But does that make the argument really hold up? Consider that human brains have also not evolved to find their origin. And yet we somehow managed to do just that. Maybe the pessimists are missing something.

Mysterious arguments

Mysterious thinkers play a prominent role in biological arguments and analogies. In his remarkable 1983 book The Modularity of Mind, the late philosopher Jerry Fodor argued that there must be "thoughts we are not equipped to think."

Likewise, the philosopher Colin McGinn has argued in a series of books and articles that all minds suffer from "cognitive closure" regarding certain problems. Just as dogs or cats will never understand basic numbers, human brains must be shut down by some of the wonders of the world. McGinn suspects that the reason why philosophical puzzles such as the mind / body problem – how the physical processes in our brain generate consciousness – turn out to be insoluble is that their true solutions are simply inaccessible to the human mind.

If McGinn is right that our brains are simply not equipped to solve certain problems, it makes no sense to even try, as they will continue to annoy and perplex us. McGinn himself is convinced that there is, in fact, a perfectly natural solution to the problem of mind and body, but that human brains will never find it.

Even the psychologist Stephen Pinker, a man often accused of scientific hassle, i.e. is sympathetic to the mystery dispute. If our ancestors did not need to understand the wider universe in order to spread their genes, he argues, why natural selection gave us the brain power to do this?

Theoretical mind-blowing theories

Mysteries usually raise the question of cognitive limits in strict, black and white terms: we can either solve the problem, or it will forever refute us. Either we have cognitive access, or we suffer from closure. At one point, human exploration will suddenly hit a metaphorical brick wall, after which we will be forever condemned to stare at a misunderstanding.

Another possibility that is often overlooked by the mysteries is one of the slowly decreasing returns. Reaching the boundaries of an investigation may feel less like hitting a wall than getting stuck in a mound. We continue to slow down, even as we make more efforts, and yet there is no discrete point beyond which further progress is not possible at all.

There is another ambiguity in the mystery thesis that my colleague Michael Vlerik and I have mentioned in an academic paper. The mysteries claim that we will never find a true scientific theory for some aspect of reality, or alternatively that we can find that theory, but will never truly understand it?

In the science-fiction series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, an Extraterrestrial Civilization builds a massive supercomputer to calculate the answer to the supreme question of life, the universe, and everything. When the computer finally announces that the answer is "42," no one has any idea what that means (in fact, they continue to build an even larger supercomputer to figure out just that).

It's still a question of "mystery" if you've come up with the right answer, but have no idea what it means or can't wrap your head around? The mysteries often link the two. the problem of mind and body is inaccessible to human science, it is assumed that we will never find a true scientific theory describing the mind-body relationship, but at other times he writes that the problem will always remain "painfully difficult to understand" for humans and that “the head is spinning in theory

This suggests that we may come to a true scientific theory, but it will have a 42nd quality. But again, some people will argue that this is already true of the theory Even quantum physicist Richard Feynman acknowledged, "I think I can safely say that no one understands quantum mechanics."

Would the mysteries say that we humans are "cognitively imprisoned" in the quantum world? According to quantum mechanics, particles can be in two places at one time or accidentally pop out of empty space. Although this is extremely difficult to comprehend, quantum theory makes incredibly accurate predictions. The phenomena of "quantum strangeness" have been confirmed by several experimental tests, and scientists are now creating theory-based applications.

The Mysterians also tend to forget how some earlier scientific theories and concepts were originally overlooked when they were originally proposed. Nothing in our cognitive composition has prepared us for the theory of relativity, evolutionary biology, or heliocentrism.