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Why do so many Americans believe that the moon's landing is fake?

  Astronaut standing on a green screen.

Illustration of a photo by Lisa Larson-Walker. Photo: Mark Sebastian / Flickr CC, NASA.

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  • The 50th Moon Landing Apollo 11 gave the memories of watching the live event at a café in Berkeley, Calif., During this fateful 1969 year. Not that we really saw it: CBS News created an animated approximation of what is happening at 238,000 miles in space. As the simulated lunar collector drew ever closer to the moon's surface, Walter Crookke took off his glasses.
    When Walter Kronkee lowered his horns, he knew it would be great. He did it six years earlier to announce the death of President John Kennedy in Dallas. Now Cronke was very dazed. He had cut out his reporter teeth, covering the depths of human corruption in the Nuremberg trials, but he was still the son of a Midwest dentist who had grown up with the miracle of the intergalactic feats of Buck Rogers, Flash Gordon and the rest. ,

    " Oh, boy – exclaimed the most trusted man in America. "Oh boy Man of the moon

    In Berkeley, drinking our espresso, exhausted with a bloody bloom of youth (I just turned 21, all just had 21), we were not impressed. We had not grown indifferent to the "Space Program." When I was nine, the fact that the Soviet deputy was on the globe as the American missiles exploded at the starting site was chasing my dreams. When JFK made his famous speech in 1962, exhorting a filled football stadium at Rice University in Houston, "We choose to go to the moon … not because it's easy, but because it's hard," was an article of faith. As John Glen walked around the Earth, I got home from the feeling of a hill. "We" had someone up there, shining light in the darkness of space.
    Going to the moon will be the next logical step in the grandiose development of Enlightenment, the completion of the cycle of human art and science that began with Copernicus, Kepler, Descartes, and Newton, who published Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 – a magnificent march from the priesthood dark ages, including the founding of the American Republic itself. Kennedy's upgrading capital was the challenge of fulfilling the big task of "the end of this decade" (our decade!), Thus unleashing the principle of the narrative that the entertainment industry calls a "ticking clock". As with any big saga, there were ups and downs. In 1967, at the launch site fire, three astronauts were killed. But then, in the virtual bottom of the Ninth Inning, with only six months remaining in the deadly leader's vision schedule, Neil Armstrong said, "The Eagle is Perched."

    But on Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley on July 20, 1969, the time of Apollo 11 expired. Too many things had happened. Only a few months after Kennedy's speech came the Cuban missile crisis, the planet is a depressed button away from the nuclear disaster. This was followed by the murder of the President, the murder of the envoy, the still unsealed crime of the century. (Find someone who believes the Warren Commission report is that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone.) Then there was the war in Vietnam, the death of 56,000 Americans, and an unspeakable Vietnamese, an event that laid the foundation for the division , which continues to ruin the country today.
    By 1969, we knew Werner von Braun, a space program character, the star-directed person was Hitler's favorite rocket launcher, the B-2 rocket, the Reich's revenge weapon. Piano satire Tom Lerer took the face of the former SS man to sing: "When rockets rise, who cares, where will they go down?" Guil Scott-Heron's song – White on the Moon. I'm taking all my damn scrutiny. Something that creates a nervous disaster, sings Scott Heron. "The price of food is increasing. And as if all this shit was not enough, a rat bit my sister Nel . But the white ones are on the moon. T

    Perhaps the worst was the marker left near Apollo's Astronauts' Sea of ​​Peace. "Here the people of Planet Earth first stepped on the moon, July 1969. We came in peace for all mankind," read the inscription signed by the three astronauts. There was another signature. The sign could be signed by Artemis, the virgin lunar goddess who tragically trampled to kill his beloved Orion from his powerful brother, the sun god Apollo. It may have been a Maya pyramid builder, a Rajput astronomer in Jaipur. It could have been Percy Biss Shelley, Emily Dickinson, W. Yeats, Billy Holiday, or someone else who was rhyming a "moon" with a "spoon". He may have mentioned ocean tides controlled by moon gravity.

    But no. It was signed by Richard Nixon, who was elected president only a year ago, claiming a secret plan to end the war, but that was a lie. Even now, 45 years since Cronkite reported its last days in the POTUS bunker at Watergate, Nixon's name remains on the Moon. Without erosion from rain, rain, snow or wind, it will probably be there forever, a hell of a tombstone for a universal dream.

    In a circle attending the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11, little was said about the consequences of the mission, which is mostly a tale of retreat from Kennedy's sublime rhetoric. Perhaps there was not enough money in it. Columbus ran into the wrong continent, but he returned an empire to the investment of his Spanish officials, Isabelle and Ferdinand, then busy watching the inquisition. Apollo returned a box of rocks slightly different from those in your backyard. By 1972, after the Apollo 17 night launch, the program was canceled; Since then, people have not traveled off Earth's orbit.

    Going to the moon will be the next logical step in the grandiose development of Enlightenment.

    It was not until the launch of the space shuttle program in the 1980s when I started Miss Apollo. Compared to the large reach of Armstrong's mission, Aldrin and Collins, the space shuttle looked slightly more than an 18-wheel with wings. Not that many seemed to be interested. Once so dominant in popular imagination, the moon was drawn to the thought, too stunted and not far enough distant for the most boring episode of Star Trek . In fact, most of the internet noise on Apollo's flight has come from people who say this has never happened. I am the offspring of a well-conceived conspiracy theory (the new shooting angles of JFK, 9/11 "true" – that's it). But I never understood why so many Americans continue to believe that the mission of Apollo 11, perhaps the greatest feat of human inventiveness in recorded history, is false.

    There are no recent studies on the exact degree of denial of the hardcore moon (Knight-Ridder 1970 survey put more than 30%). But in the present age of mistrust, where every government story is immediately suspected, the urban legend of the idea remains enormous. Everything you need to know can be found in We have never been on the moon: thirty billion dollars of America, a self-published brochure by Bill Carlising of 1976, a liberal author of aeronautics. Live guides outside the net like Cookbook for the dollar a day and Farmer's Guide for the First Time (exported from the Rolling Stone arrow press). Kaisering puts out the bullets with a moon-denier: the idea that NASA does not have technical boilers to send a man to the moon in 1969, the incapacity of Apollo's craft to withstand the intense heat that passes through Van Allen's radiation belt, of stars in the moonlight sky, supposed to be made by astronauts, the seemingly "waving" American flag in a place where there was no breeze. Kaysing also claims darker times, arguing that government officials have killed Gus Grissom and his crew during the fire of Apollo 7 because the veteran astronaut warned about the disguise of the government.

    These tropes have accumulated a narrative story with the release of the 1978 movie by Peter Hayham Capricorn . In a role similar to that of Warren Beatty in Alan Pakula's classical classics of the 1970s Elliot Gould plays a typical reporter stumbling over the story that the mission of Capricorn Edna (whose astronauts include a young man) OJ Simpson) never really went to Mars. All the work was done by Hollywood movie teams in an abandoned military base somewhere in the Mojave desert.

    Partly satire, part of the anticommune film, complete with instant conspiracies such as black helicopters, Capricorn One is distinguished by the identification of the National Aeronautics and Space Association as the perfect historical villain story of the Moon. As the X-Files viewers, the agency founded in 1957 to take responsibility for US space efforts after the Sputnik crash, became the chief executive of the government when it comes to the supposed alien presence on Earth . NASA (the initials are said to be "Never is a fair answer") did more than suppress information-it censors the soul. If you saw something in the sky, if your life was turned upside down by a spiritual encounter with a person you knew in your heart came from another planet or dimension, NASA-person in black was there to say it was nothing else marsh gas, a product of avoided imagination. NASA has blocked access to the supernatural, pressed his mind to the hamster's day of consensual reality. Finally, to the hypocrites, NASA was just a kind of public deceiver who falsified the moon landing.

    The newer additions to the denian canon include the statement that the false moon frame is actually the work of pantheon director Stanley Kubrick. The long favorite movie theater of the conspirators (largely thanks to his dirty old man, the last picture of the Illuminati, Eyes Widespread ), Kubrick assumes he shot the false landing while he was doing 2001: 19659021] Space Odyssey which includes a series of mysterious monoliths dug on the Moon. According to the Moon repulsive, Kubrick tried to "confess" his role in the deception by having Danny, the clairvoyant son of the murderous Jack Nicholson in the light dressed in Apollo 11 pullover, while he trades with his great bicycle along the corridors of a hotel "Overlud".

    With this kind of "independent study," it could be said that the moon's denial peak had happened when Buzz Aldrin struck the so-called investigator Bart Siberl. Sobral pursued astronaut Apollo 11 and insisted on swearing in the Bible that he had indeed walked on the moon. When Sybar called Aldrin, accompanied by his wife at that time, "a coward and a liar," the old flyer left him. Still, the trot remains a long perennial, albeit only because the "conspiracy" is becoming another stream of showbiz revenues, as evidenced by the work of Shane Dawson, whose soft nuclear rejection of your Tube video with more than 7 million views,

    Looking for a deeper insight, I sent John Lyr via email. A seminal figure in the roots of modern conspiracy, Lear, the son of Learjet's inventor, knows a fair share of leaving the terra firma. A pilot of the age old school class, Lear once held 18 different air speed records. During the Vietnam War, he delivered supplies to CIA customers in Lao's jungle on time. He is also the author of Lyre Hypothesis, a 1987 mega speculation that shook the native internet, claiming that even when NASA says that flying saucers did not exist, the agency made secret deals with representatives of Romanian alien races, "Selling the American alien world from another world."

    Many think that Lyr, now deep in his 70s, has come out of his mind. He does not deny this by offering visitors to his home in Las Vegas, wrapped in Reynolds's "Official John Lire Tin foil Hat," which is 20 pounds of his lone piece. I asked Lear if he thought Apollo's mission was false. About an hour later, I received an email saying "25 reasons we could not go to the moon in 1969". Lir suggested several new shades of standard rap, claiming that Saturn V, who assumed that Apollo's crew was "never worked". What the audience saw was the less powerful Saturn IB "dressed to look like Saturn B." There was also the question of moon gravity, which Lire fixes to "61.71%" of land, rather than the standard 16%, most of them, including NASA, said it was. Still, while we were not talking on the phone, there was nothing.

    Lyr was dealing with Van Allen's belts, the fields of radioactive particles that surround the moon-denying planet say they would make Apollo 11 burn. "NASA claims they just flew around them," Lir mocked. That's impossible, he said, because Van Allen's belt is not a natural phenomenon. They were "deliberately" put at 500 to 25,000 miles above Earth by a higher civilization of ET that serves as guardians of the universe. It was not supposed to fly around these Van Allen belts or pass through them, certainly not from Apollo 11, nor from any other inhabitant of the planet. ET "make sure we do not go anywhere," says Lyr. "They do not want earthlings like us to pollute the solar system." That would have been the case, "said Lear," until humanity learns to live without envy, hatred and greed. "

    Was Lee that NASA had to falsify the moon landing because ET would not let us into space? Yes, he answered, that's what he was saying. We could not go because we did not deserve it. All the forces they could offer are these unfortunate counterfeits to keep the masses entertained.

    Here, I thought, Lyr interrupted the heart of the question. The only thing to do was to challenge the social-political wisdom and landing bill at Berkeley's Cafe in 1969. To suppose that the species was morally unfit to be allowed to leave the planet was another matter.

    I could not agree with Lyr and not because I doubted his philosophical cosmology. The promite in me has rejected this low-plan hypothesis that the species is lacking in mind, free will or self-esteem to fly to the moon. It seemed to me an insult to intelligence, born in Eden, developed through evolution, or both.

    I'm not Poliana, but the older I am, the more the dystopian dialogue of the time is pushing me off. When was the last time you saw a movie or TV show that looked tomorrow as better than yesterday? The bad future is a reflex that is not more reliable than the line of bogus happy endings in decades. I was now a grandfather, I felt it was my duty to deal with the human condition, to protect not only the future, but also the past, the mission of Apollo 11 is very much involved.

    I only thought of it that night when I left my home in Brooklyn to peek into the sky. Only a few minutes before watching the local TV news that took a break from the hit-end ending in the Bronx and Trump's latest statement to mark the 50th anniversary of the landing . "Can you believe people actually went to the moon?" the anchor asked with a sudden burst of wonder. She did not deny; rather, she was in awe that people as much as we once took out such a feat. Over me the moon made of green cheese or not was full of three-quarters. It was time to take care of this not so distant past when the place was the place where it was nice to go.

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