It may sound like playground activity, but jumping and spinning can be the key to protecting human bodies from Mars' reduced gravity.
NASA has announced that it is preparing to send the first humans to the Red Planet by the mid-1930s, one of the first humans to set foot on Mars, likely to be a woman.
While on Mars there are many robotic missions – including NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover, answering the basic question of whether life ever existed on the planet will require humans to visit it.
Being transported into space is not as fun as it sounds, especially because of the large charge it incurs on the human body.
Humans rely on the forces of earth's gravity to maintain the power and function of every bodily organ and system.
In particular, musculoskeletal (muscle and bone) and cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) systems are highly dependent on gravity for normal function.
We take for granted the act of continually imposing our body against gravity with every step we take.
The contact we make with the floor forces us back through our feet. These forces are necessary and sufficient to keep the muscles and bones of our legs and thighs active and relatively strong.
If the need for contact with the floor – which happens in space – disappears and your feet do not "touch" something, there is nothing for the lower body to work on.
People who spend a long time in space are also getting higher because the power of Earth's gravity is no longer there for to keep the spine compressed.
Although this may sound appealing to people who are vertically challenged, it is reported that the actual process is painful and increases the risk of problems such as disc herniation when returning to Earth upon re-exposure to gravity.
On Earth, we always switch between lying, sitting and standing, each of which changes the position of our blood due to gravity.
When we stand, the blood in our bodies falls to our feet, which means that the heart must work hard to pump the blood back to our head so that we do not fall.
In space, the body is in alignment, where most of the blood hangs around our breasts and head. This means that the heart does not have to work so hard to take blood from the legs to the head.
Therefore, when astronauts return from space, it may be difficult for them to stay fit – or at least feel like
The reduction of gravitational forces on the bodies of astronauts for long periods not only affects their physiology, but may also affect their ability to perform mission critical tasks.
However, countermeasures can help reduce the amount of time it takes to resume everyday life when returning to the Blue Point.
Ongoing Counteractives aboard the ISS
At the time being aboard the International Space Station (ISS) crew members are following a rigorous countermeasure program to minimize any adverse effects on microgravity on health.
These include, but are not limited to, exercise, administration of nutritional supplements and medications, and special clothing.
Astrona uts take nearly 2 hours of exercise a day, half for resistance training and half for aerobic training.
 They operate using an Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) – an air pressure-based weighing machine that allows almost all standard weight-based movements.
Crew performs multiple sets of upper and lower body exercises, with 10 repetitions in each set at maximum intensity.
They also use CEVIS (exercise bike) and T2 (treadmill with harness system), for continuous aerobic exercise, with a specified intensity. 60% maximum effort.
Both are equipped with systems that mean they do not cause too much vibration, which is important for maintaining the ISS on its orbital path.
Nutritional Supplements and Medicines
The current ISS missions expose the crew to sunrise and sunset every 90 minutes and in the blink of an eye they are out of sight.
Given the virtually absent exposure to direct sunlight, astronauts are offset by the addition of calcium and vitamin D.
Without vitamin D, our bodies cannot effectively absorb calcium, which is essential for maintaining healthy healthy bones.
On Earth, bones are maintained healthy by a balance of bone-building and bone-killing cells. In space, there seems to be a shift towards more bone-killing cells.
Astronauts are taking a drug known as Bisphosphonates, which reduces bone-killing cells to help restore the balance needed between the two.
Apart from being painful, space growth can also lead to operational problems.
Some astronauts have failed to return to the seat of the Soyuz spacecraft, the vehicle responsible for bringing them home.
The Russian Penguin Costume is a garment that provides body compression with elastic bungee cords. One bungee moves from the shoulders to the waist belt and from the belt to the legs.
Cosmonauts are known to wear this before leaving the ISS to help re-compress their spine.
The suit was also worn while cycling on the Russian space station MIR, with a study showing that it helped to increase the activity of the leg muscles and increase oxygen consumption.
This indicates that the eraser provided an additional "resistive" stimulus to the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems.
All of these countermeasures are vital to the well-being of the ISS astronauts, but the man who spent the longest time in space – Russian astronaut Valery Polyakov – has only been there for 437 days.
These days stays on board ISS are usually limited to no more than 6 months.
If NASA sends humans to Mars – approximately three years to return, they will have to resist the adverse effects of microgravity for much longer.  Counterfactual Considerations for Future Missions to Mars
Given that the ISS, including all its constituents, is approximately the size of a football field, a spaceship to Mars will be much smaller – closer to the size of Tennis Court.
This means that it is unlikely to have the luxury of traditional exercise devices such as those on the ISS.
Therefore, scientists will need to be intelligent in allowing astronauts to protect their health with minimal resources. Exercise
Although the exercise should and will no doubt be in all future missions on other planets, the most effective type of exercise to keep astronauts healthy is currently under discussion.
A study published earlier this year examined how much power humans can produce through their feet when they perform two-way hops in simulated Martian gravity – one-third of Earth – using the European Space Agency's vertical treadmill.
The authors showed that by jumping over 15 centimeters they could achieve the same forces with the earth as those operating on Earth.
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This could help astronauts achieve the necessary degree of leg strength to conserve bones and muscles.
Similar studies were conducted using a specially designed jump system. The Sledge or SJS jump system uses air pressure cylinders (a concept similar to ARED) and has plates at the bottom to feel the force of the leg.
During a flight rest – space flight simulation – volunteers assigned to the SJS group were able to maintain strength in their feet and strength across their feet, compared to those who did not make the jumps during the 60-day bed rest.
After all, the best way to correct a lack of gravity would be creation that can happen through human centrifuges.
Centrifuge – which creates artificial gravity – is a large device that rotates; imagine a walk with a tea cup on the fairground, but ten times faster and no need to spin with the cup itself.
In the centrifuge there are numerous "screws" where the person sits at the end of the gear wheel, away from the center.
Studies from a previous European Space Agency bed rest campaign have shown that 30 minutes of centrifuge exposure per day at "1g" – Earth's gravity – maintains the strength of the leg muscles and slows the onset of feeling weak when standing up after 5 days of bed rest.
While human centrifuges show promising data and ongoing research is ongoing, the logistics of having one on board is still a challenge at many levels.
Studies will continue to understand how best to integrate a centrifuge in a ship bound for Mars.
While we can't recreate gravity through the things we carry, it's possible to provide resistive or compressive stimuli – as seen with the Penguin costume – and / or directly stimulating our nerves to contract our muscles.
Although the Penguin's suit has some pitfalls, such as discomfort, the idea of using elastic resistance is still in dispute. One such concept that has been developed is the European Space Agency's Skinsuit.
The skin suit was designed by engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to make it more comfortable than a Penguin suit and provide more gradual elastic resistance throughout the body.
This is to better imitate the gradual nature in which gravity is tested on Earth.
Recent studies show that SkinSuit helped partially reverse the height growth of astronauts during the 8-day ESA ESA mission in 2015, recently, the 6-month PROXIMA mission in 2016-17.
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation
Although not entirely attractive, neuromuscular electrical stimulation of muscles is also a topical area of research, given that it is compact and portable.
It does exactly what it says on the tile – it sends small electrical currents to the nerves that supply the muscles of the legs, causing them to contract. volunteers to have one leg for 5 days (another way to mimic the effect of space flight on muscles).
A group that had electrical stimulation for 40 minutes, twice daily, was able to maintain the size of their thigh muscles compared to those that did not.
There is no uniform size – all this
There is still so much we do not know how we will send humans to Mars and keep them healthy.
Reduced gravity aside, the primary concern for the environment is radiation exposure, which can be up to 700 times higher than our planet, leading to a significantly increased risk of cancer.
Astronauts on board the ISS are currently generally shielded from radiation damage because it is still in the Earth's magnetosphere – a magnetic bubble that deflects radiation particles.
Aside from the Apollo moon landing missions – where no major particle events have occurred, thus avoiding a major health risk – this will be the first time humans will be exposed to this radiation-rich environment during on a space flight.
The European Space Agency explains that there is still misunderstanding about the risks of space radiation and the long-term effects are not yet known.
It will not be enough to rely on things that astronauts can do or do; It takes sophisticated engineering to make sure the ship is built with the right armor to go into battle.
One thing we know is that there will be no one-size-fits-all approach. This will undoubtedly be a combination of different measures specifically targeted at each crew member.
Research in the coming years will contribute to the creation of a magic decoction.